Impact of Afghan War on Pakistan
By Falak Sher Khan • Apr 16th, 2009 • Category: Politics • 7 Comments Afghanistan the neighboring country of Pakistan has been in war since one can remember. From Mongol Emperors to Russian invasion and now the country is facing war on terror. These wars have shattered the base of Afghanistan and left it in ruins. It lacks proper administration, governance, and communication infrastructure. The Statistics available are not accurate as they should be. The estimated population of Afghanistan is about 31, 900,000 from which 28% are literate. Overall View
Where Afghanistan has suffered from wars that has happened from time to time its neighboring countries have also suffered including Pakistan and Iran. After Russian invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, more than 2.8 million Afghan refugees sought shelter in Pakistan and about 1.5 million have fled to Iran. Russia lost almost 15,000 soldiers and many wounded. In 1988 the United States, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Soviet Union signed an agreement by which the Russia would withdraw its troops, which completed in 1989. After Russian invasion a group of tribal and urban groups arose and all of these known collectively as the mujahidin and afterward they form into now known Taliban. Even after the end of Russian invasion, the Afghan refugees have stayed in Pakistan and caused extra burden on the economy of our country and they prove as cheap labor causing unemployment to local workers. Most of the Afghan immigrants have no documentation of any kind. Hardly any of them have ID or any record to their permanent location. This has given some of culprit’s an edge because they are not afraid to be identified or recognized. Most of the drug dealers, illegal arms dealer, car lifters, or smugglers are Afghan refugees that have made their permanent shops in the borders areas. The easy access to Illegal weaponry has promoted the Kalakov...
...enters the phenomena of political socialization. This essay will define what the phenomena is, what it encompasses and how it contributes to the transformation of the political system of a community, state or globally.
Political socialization can be simply describe as the life long process by which individuals develop a relationship to the political world and acquire knowledge, beliefs, values and behaviours conducive to citizenship. Basically, according to Austin J, this is the life long process of development whereby people acquire their respective political orientations and the indoctrination of the public about the political system political cultures and values.
This process takes shape in two distinct forms. These can be highlighted as the direct or manifest or blunt political socialization. The latter can be defined as the latent or passive political socialization. One would view the former to be the radical and the latter to be more conspicuous, either ways they play a fundamental role in one acquiring his or her political orientations, feelings, values and behaviour. Direct socialization occurs when one is explicitly being instructed or indoctrinated about the political system through formal entities and civic institutional impartation of knowledge at school or any educational facet. Latent is more relaxed and...
...Impact of Terrorism in Pakistan
In lieu of unlawful violence to inculcate fear and increase coercion, terrorism has become a trending topic in the world today. Pakistan, a country in South Asia bordered by Afghanistan and India has been a country worthy of speculation due to the rate of terrorism and tribal wars that have quickly taken over the country. The sporadic effects of these attacks have begun to shatter what used to be one of Asia’s fastest growing economies.
Impact on GDP
Pakistan’s GDP has been one of the main economic factors that have been affected by the terrorism exposed to the country. Consumers who were used to going out on a regular basis and purchasing high volumes of merchandise have been afraid to do in the recent years. This has caused a large decrease in consumer spending, which in turn has had a negative impact on the Pakistan economy. “As the GDP growth rate has gone down from 8.40% in 2004-05 to 5.80% in 2007-08 and more recently it has reduced to 2.10% in 2008-09” (The Business Exchange). According to experience curves and studies that have been conducted, it has been concluded that it will take the Pakistan economy 33 years to double its size.
Impact on Exports
Pakistan conducts most of its trade with the United States and the European Union and furthermore, according to sources, 50% of its exports are...
Due to the continuous political instability and recurring military interventions in decision making, Pakistan is far from witnessing a healthy and democratic political system in the near future.
On the international scene, states have been struggling to obtain their independence and sovereignty. But the biggest threat that arises after accomplishing independence is the way the government rules, the standards it follows and the goals it sets. This is when a new journey begins where the government searches for the best system that suits the country and satisfies the different sections of its population.
Most of the states adopt democracy to be the dominant process in politics. But each state has its own definition for democracy or applies democracy in its own way.
One of the states that still struggle today to find its own peace and stability is Pakistan, which was site for different cultures .
Historically, Pakistan encountered waves of conquerors that resided in the region, and who influenced the residents of that area and were also absorbed among them, till the independence of Pakistan that was established on August 14, 1947 .
This paper will be studying the development of democracy in Pakistan, highlighting the major historical events the state has undergone, starting with the instability the country has and is still witnessing, moving to...
...Liberal Democracy in Pakistan, Scope and Challenges
By Shafqat Aziz
Almost a quarter century has been passed since the death of Gen. Zia, the ruthless military dictator occurred in a plane crash near Bahawalpur, a town in the southern part of Pakistan’s Punjab province. Today, apparently no mainstream political party in Pakistan owns (at least publically) him. However, the question arises here that does this fact make this notorious character irrelevant in the social and political life of Pakistan? The answer is not only plain ‘no’ with an additional note that the presence and impact of Gen. Zia in every sphere of life in Pakistan has become much more stronger and prevalent now as compare to the era when he was alive and everything was tightly under the control of his unlawful regime.
During the eleven dark years of Gen. Zia, majority of the Pakistanis exhibited a remarkable resilience against the so-called Islamization imposed by the military dictator. Except his toady politicians, some mullahs and power hungry bureaucrats and ‘sarkari babus’, the society in general did not change its liberal outlook. It was so because the generation that was facing the tyranny of Zia directly was actually a product of relatively progressive socio-political environment as well as religiously tolerant discourse. However, apart from this resilience shown by society in...
...economic, social or political theory or system is called Ideology. It contains those ideals which a company needs to establish a stable nation.
Defining ideology George Lewis says “ideology is a plan or program which is based upon philosophy”
Ideology of Pakistan
Pakistan’s ideology was based on the Islamic principle of “the only sovereign is Allah".
Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith based on the Islamic principles. They should have all the resources at the disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization. Quid-e-Azam once said:
"Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam".
This basically gives all the idea that Pakistan is a nation with an Islamic ideology.
Pakistan’s law and order situation as of today.
The situation of Pakistan as of today is probably the most troublesome since the creation of Pakistan. The security situation deteriorates continuously; the country is challenged by growing Islamic terrorism, which already caused hundreds of casualties. This crisis is created by an economic instability, water and energy shortage as well as drug and human trafficking.
In order to encounter and solve these complex problems the state of Pakistan must ensure rule of law...
...SYED (G.M SYED) IN THE PAKISTAN MOVEMENT AND HIS STRUGGLE FOR SEPARATION OF SINDH (SINDHU DESH) FROM PAKISTAN
SUBJECT: POLITICAL LEADERSHIP OF PAKISTAN
SUBMITTED TO: SIR HIMYATULLAH YAQOOBY
SUBMITTED BY: MUHAMMAD SHEERAZ SOOMRO (3rd SEMESTER)
G.M. Sayed was Sindhi nationalist politician whose personality has always been prone to contradictory views and sometimes to angry public discussion. Being a strict nationalist he dedicated decades of his life for attaining the political right for the Sindh’s. His political career won him both public applause and rigorous criticism due to some of his controversial moves. Ghulam Murtaza Sayed, more popular by the name of G.M. Sayed was born on 17 January 1904 at a village called “Sann” in dadu district to a Sayed family. While G.M. Sayed was young his father Sayed Mian Muhammad Shah was murdered due to a family dispute, his elder brother too died at an early age and G.M Sayed was left as the only survived male member of the family. Due to concerns regarding his safety as the only surviving male member, he was not sent to school and instead to getting formal education, he was educated at his native home1.
In his political career he evolved from being a Pan Islamist to Indian nationalist to a Pakistani nationalist and ended up being a Sindh nationalist. His political...
...of regionalism in Bengal, no strong political party, first 9 years and 11 prime ministers, 1955 dissolution of constitution assembly and Black Doctrine of Necessity.
1956-58: First parliamentary constitution, abrogation of constitution and Martial Law.
1958-69: Ayub’s Martial Law, Presidential System and 1962 constitution, making of Muslim League (Conventional) system of basic democracies, media censorship, but also better economic growth.
1970-77: Fascist civilian rule under Bhutto, agreed 73 constitutions, Bhutto tried to oust military from politics but failed, the poor friendly regime but negative effects of nationalization, Pakistan National Alliance (PNA) and movement against Bhutto derailed democracy. Opposition invited Zia to take over.
1977-88: Zia’s martial law and ban on political activities, making of Majlase Shoora (1982), 8th amendments with Powerful President non party based election 1985, making of pressure groups like MQM, Anjuman Sipahe Sahaba. Restricted women participation in politics.
1988-99: The most corrupt regime of Benezir and dictatorial regime of Nawaz Sharif, dissolution of assembly, rising poverty and decreasing people’s interest in politics.
Role of Army:
The Oath now prescribed for the Members of the Armed Forces as given in the Second Schedule (Article 244) of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan is as follows:-
“ I-------, do solemnly swear that I will ear true faith...
Social injustice does not only effect the life of a common man but also jeopardize national machinery.
Unfortunately, Islamic Republic of Pakistan stands on the top of those countries where social injustice prevails at every level of the society. Citizens of Pakistan are unaware of social justice concept and its effects on society. Pakistan’s civil and military rulers and elite class have been plundering this country since independence. They have always been claiming that they are pious and others are corrupt. Military ruler assertion is completely wrong. The fact is that country’s condition has been deteriorating under all regimes.
Instead of providing justice, improving economic conditions of the masses and decreasing the class difference in society, they are busy in finding legs to stand upon their lies as truth.
The ruling and elite class of Pakistan never promoted concept of Social Democracy that includes a society where all get opportunity to rise, a society without strong class system, policies and programs to reduce unemployment, welfare society, respect of labor irrespective of their level of education, respect of people irrespective of their family background, culture of honesty, a strongly progressive tax system, generous government provision of non-cash benefits such as education, health and housing, honest and independent Judiciary, patriotic society where interests of collectivity are supreme,...