- Politeness formulas in Arabic:
When talking about politeness formulas in Arabic and in English and how they are different, it is crucial to take into account the distinction between propositional content of a formula and its illocutionary force potential. A good example showing the relationship between semantic content or propositional content and illocutionary force illustrates in using congratulations in English and “shukran” in Arabic which is equivalent to “thanks”. Sometimes illocutionary force is not completely predictable, but simply can be learnt by what people agree upon. For instance, there are three expressions in Arabic performing different forces according to the matter of conventions; \baraka-allahu-fik\ “God bless you” is used to perform the act of thanking, whereas \barakafik\ “blessing in yourself” has a different force, addressing the family members and the relatives of the deceased. \mabruuk\ “blesses” is another formula used for congratulations of marriage or success in examinations. There are many other expressions used by Arabs in one of the earliest means of demonstrating politeness in a second language which are” greetings”. Greetings actually are the first task one should know when learning a new language. In Arabic greetings; for example, one would not restrict themselves to say \ahlan wa sahlan\ “hello” rather they would precede it by \marhaba\ “welcome” and they may add another welcoming phrase such as \al beit beitak\ “will you make my home as your home\ to express pleasure at seeing someone. Elaborate greetings are often used in Arabic as well as extended conversation openings which the latter is resulted from a transfer of Arabic discourse politeness strategies into English. After greeting, one might invite others to his house- as Arabs are best known for their hospitality- and prepare a hearty meal for them. Then, he would use certain politeness formulas after bringing the meal for guests such as...
People have different ways to express politeness and they usually use a range of different linguistic expressions to do so, depending on the relationship with the addressee. This research will explain Browns and Levinson’s politeness theory and will recognize how universal this theory is and weather it can be applied on Japanese language taking into account the difference in cultures.
Brown and Levinson’s theory of Politeness and how it applies in Arabic:
Brown and Levinson`s theory is mainly based on three principle notions: face, face threatening act (FTA), and politeness strategies (Bowe & Martin 2009, p. 27). Brown and Levinson’s concept of face was derived from Goffman (1972 p.5): “The term face may be defined as the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact. Face is an image of self delineated in terms of approved social attributes”. So their definition for face was similar “ ‘face’, the public self-image that every member wants to claim for himself”. Brown and Levinson (1987, p.61)
Brown and Levinson have conducted a research with three languages (English, Tamil and Tzeltal). According to Brown and Levinson, people’s faces are human properties that are broadly comparable to self-esteem (Grundy 2008, p. 195). Brown and Levinson (1987) classified two notions of face negative and positive...
...an ambiguous request. Politeness was rated both holistically and by counting the
number of morphemes used in a question, with the assumption that the number of
morphemes and the level of politeness are proportional. It was found that the cashiers
studied were more polite to the face of a member of the opposite sex than they were to
that of someone of their own sex. If we assume that this study represents the average
population, this study proves that men are more polite to the face of a woman than to
that of a man, and vise versa. This study disproves proposals made by Lakoff and
Montgomery and brings new ideas to the area of politeness and gender.
According to Cutting (2002: 44) there is more to politeness than “minding your
Ps and Qs” and not wiping your mouth with the back of your hand. So what is
politeness? Grundy (2000) defines politeness as:
the term we use to describe the extent to which actions, including the way
things are said, match addressees’ perceptions of how they should be performed.
(Grundy 2000, cited in Bloomer, Griffiths & Merrison 2005: 111)
Holmes (1995) goes into more detail:
ʹpolitenessʹ will be used to refer to behaviour which actively expresses positive
concern for others, as well as non‐imposing distancing behaviour.
Arabic euphemism: the question of politeness in translation
The article explains euphemism definition and shows the main characteristics of euphemism and the use of it in several discourses. It provides Arabic examples of euphemisms that been used by native speakers of Arabic language. Also, it explains the reason behind using this linguistic politeness strategy. In addition the study expose the use o euphemism in the old classical Arabic with examples occurred in the holy Quran. The study also sheds the light on the importance of the cultural aspect in using euphemism and how this use varies between different cultures.
The study opens up with a detailed definition of euphemism, that it is a linguistic politeness strategy whereby an offensive expression and replaces it with one that carries a positive attitude. That includes examples of a number of jobs terms which clear out the use of euphemism to give a positive attitude toward these jobs. Ex.: replacing the term garbage man with cleanliness worker. Then, the study points out that euphemism may express both negative politeness which involve attending to the producer’s own face wants in order to avoid his loss of face, or positive politeness which involves seeing to the receiver face wants for the purpose of expressing solidarity with him.
27 November 2014
Literature throughout Arab and Islamic History
The culture of Arabic-speaking people throughout history has been expressed greatly by the written word of the people, and to an almost equal degree, the spoken word. Even before the advent of Islam on the Arabian Peninsula, poetry was representative of the Arabic culture. As Islam spread across the Mediterranean and the world, great mathematicians and scientists wrote works, treatises, compilations and many other documents describing their discoveries. Countless histories, biographies, and geographies were written in the Islamic Golden Age. A great deal of fiction was written throughout Arabic history, ranging from Romantic novels to epic literature. Despite the prolificacy of all these genres and works, much Arabic literature remains in the dark today, both to the Western world and for many Muslims and Arabs.
Literature in the Arabic culture started in the pre-Islamic era mostly with poets of various tribes throughout the Arabian Peninsula. These poets acted as historians, propagandists, reciters of legends, and at times, even the tribe’s spokesmen. Most poets recited their works orally, rather than writing them down. Some of the more famous of these poets were Imru’ al-Quais, Antar, and Zuhair. These poets were especially important for their “hanged poems” up on display in...
...UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT (Abstract) M.A Arabic syllabus under Credit Semester System (PG) (Calicut University Credit Semester System) Implemented with effect from 2010 admission onwards in affiliated colleges – Orders Issued. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GENERAL AND ACADEMIC BRANCH IV – ‘B’ SECTION No.GA IV/B2/2133/06-(2) Dated, Calict University P.O. 08-09-2010. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Read:- 1. U.O. GA IV/JI/1373/08 dated, 23/07/2010 2. Minutes of the meeting of the Board of Studies in Arabic (PG) held on 19/07/2010 (Item No.I) ORDER Credit Semester System & grading has been introduced for P.G curriculum in affiliated colleges in the University with effect from 2010 admission onwards and the regulation for the same implemented vide paper read as 1st above. The meeting of the Board of Studies in Arabic (P.G.) at its meeting held on 19/07/2010 considered the syllabus of M.A. Arabic course under Credit Semester System (Calicut University Credit Semester System) & resolved to approve the same vide paper read 2 nd above (vide item No.1 of the minutes). Considering the urgency for implementing the syllabus of M.A Arabic course under Credit Semester System (Calicut University Credit Semester System), the Registrar in charge of...
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For the Wikipedia policy, see Wikipedia:Etiquette.
"Your eel, I think, Sir?"
Cartoon in Punch magazine: 28 July 1920
Politeness is best expressed as the practical application of good manners or etiquette. It is a culturally defined phenomenon, and therefore what is considered polite in one culture can sometimes be quite rude or simply eccentric in another cultural context.
While the goal of politeness is to make all of the parties relaxed and comfortable with one another, these culturally defined standards at times may be manipulated to inflict shame on a designated party.
Anthropologists Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson identified two kinds of politeness, deriving from Erving Goffman's concept of face:
Negative politeness: Making a request less infringing, such as "If you don't mind..." or "If it isn't too much trouble..."; respects a person's right to act freely. In other words, deference. There is a greater use of indirect speech acts.
Positive politeness: Seeks to establish a positive relationship between parties; respects a person's need to be liked and understood. Direct speech acts, swearing and flouting Grice's maxims can be considered aspects...
...POLITENESS and INTERACTION
Being polite in communication means showing awareness of another face.
1) Positive face
2) Negative face
3) Positive face threatening acts
4) Negative face threatening acts
C. Strategies of Politeness
1) Bald on record
The speaker directly asks for the thing that he or she needs.
Benny is in a conversation with his father at 11 pm. Benny is getting sleepy. He really wants to go to bed soon. He directly tells his father that he is sleepy and wants to sleep.
“Dad, I’m really sleepy. May we continue talking tomorrow? I want to go to bed.”
2) Off record
As the example no. 1, Benny does not tell his father that he wants to sleep soon. He just talks to himself as yawning.
“Hoaamm. I’m so sleepy.”
He does not ask his father to let him sleep. But, his intention is shown by talking to himself as aiming that his father notices what he means.
3) Positive politeness strategies
Positive politeness concerns on how speaker be aware of another speaker that she or he needs respect. Positive politeness is about being respectful in communication and making another speaker feels that she/he is respected.
How is about having lunch together?
The speaker puts the listener as the one that is the part of the speaker.
4) Negative politeness strategies
...Analysis on Language Politeness Used by Students in Dangerous Mind Film
Communication is one way that people use in order to convey meaning, intention, and message to others. Communication is also a process of transferring information from one person to another. Communication happens in all over the world. It can happen in public places, in houses, in many other places. The language used by a person and how a person uses the language when communicating to others is very important thing in the communication. It is important that during the communication, a person can be polite, use the language appropriately. Moreover, knowing the relationship between the speaker and the addressee well so he or she can speak appropriately and make others feel comfortable is also important. In this case, the communication happens in the school. There, communication happens between teachers and students. When doing a communication to their teacher, students must know how to communicate with their teacher, what utterance to use. This paper investigates the language politeness used by students in Dangerous Mind film. The film is about the story of a new teacher named Mrs. Johnson, one of the characters, who teaches students whose characteristics are very bad. The settings in this film are taken in several places. One of them is in the classroom setting where communication between Mrs. Johnson and her students happen. Therefore, the...