Today, we live in a world that has come a long way and is in a constant state of evolution. Every day, our nation leaders are constantly battling to come up with or refine policies and regulations that will, they hope, improve or sustain our current lifestyle. While the amount of polices is vast, the one in particular that I will be focusing on will be immigration, more specifically, the immigration policy that allows for case-by-case decision making in regards to immigrant deportation. I chose this case because it seems highly controversial and raises many questions, considering there are so many “gray areas” to take into account, as is the case with many policies. What I set out to explore in more detail is in regards to illegal immigrants who get to stay and are apart of the U.S. workforce, but consequently take away jobs from America citizens. If Plato were alive today, he would be probably be disappointed with how society has turned out, but not surprised. Our democratic government is something Plato has seen in his lifetime and is not fond of it. He has seen the unstable manner of democracy, and knows that it lacks leaders with proper skills and morals. Leaders, according to Plato, must be groomed from birth. They must be molded and shaped from young children through intense training and education to become “expert” rulers. In essence, they must “know” the “forms of good.” It is only these individuals who have reached this prestigious level of expertise that would be qualified to make judgment and decisions. How Plato, or a Platonist, would approach this issue of immigration is something that must be looked at far deeper than the surface level. Since experts, those who know the good, are the only ones who should be allowed to make decisions, Plato would say to consult them on the matter. However, finding an expert in immigration can prove troublesome. If finding an expert on immigration were not possible, Plato would advise to look...
Euthyphro – Plato
PHI208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning
Euthyphro – Plato
The discussion between Socrates and Euthyphro is one of the most famous Socratic discussions because of the meaning set behind the actions. This discussion is focused on what is the piety or the holiness asked by Socrates to Euthyphro. Socrates appoints Euthyphro to help him understand what piety is as he admits he does not know, in order to help with his case against him. They argue about Euthyphro’s answer that piety is what the Gods love and impiety is the opposite. Socrates then questions which is dear because they love or they love because it is dear. Socrates challenges to comprehend an understanding of this indefinable concept and uses logic to understand what holiness is as provided by Euthyphro who is acting religious. This paper will show how the concept of holiness emerges from Euthyphro’s three definitions of piety. In addition this paper will suggest why Socrates goal for this discussion.
Euthyphro’s three definitions of piety are well used with great examples, but Socrates always tries to shoot them down by trying to have a rejection. The first definition Euthyphro says is “Piety is doing as I am doing; that is to say, prosecuting any one who is guilty of murder, sacrilege, or of any similar crime-whether he be your father or mother, or whoever he may be-that makes no difference; and not to prosecute them is...
...of them as just people, but merely unfair victims of injustice. Despite this, I think that his faithfulness to what he believed to be just is truly admirable. In my speculative opinion, being so enthusiastic to know the truth, Socrates, maybe and only maybe, wanted to know what it is after his death and to free his soul in best condition. Or, maybe he wanted to teach that what he believed to be just is more important than his life. Overall, Socrates suggests that life is worth living only if one does the just actions through the philosophical process of examining himself. I find that his character is very inspiring because doing what is just regardless of its consequences takes a great deal of courage.
Reeve, C. D. C. A Plato reader: eight essential dialogues. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub. Co., 2012. Print....
The Irony of Socrates
Socrates was thought to be ahead of his time. At the time, the citizens of Athens believed that their government had the ultimate power and nothing could be higher. So of course when one person chose to believe another view, the government became a part of the situation to maintain a sense of peace thorough the nation. This didn’t sit well with Socrates. He wanted as many people to know about his knowledge as possible because he had found scientific reasoning as to why his way was true, rather than simply because government officials say it is. This strikes up multiple cases of irony from Socrates’s turn from natural philosophy to what eventually becomes what we know today as political philosophy.
The first bit of irony arises from the fact that Socrates is actually writing to more than one audience, and also that he uses more than one strategy to do so. David Leibowitz, author of The Ironic Defense of Socrates: Plato’s Apolog, describes the audience situation, “Socratic irony has a twofold purpose and a twofold audience: conciliation of, and protection from, the unpromising members of Socrates’ audience, and the education of the promising member in the audience” (p. 17). He then explains the strategies he used to get attention from each audience, “Irony, in the sense of self-depreciation and even flattery, is necessary for the first audience so that Socrates will be less offensive to them and more in tune with their...
Wisdom and Ignorance Are They Synonyms?
In The Apology, by Plato, Socrates explains who he is and what kind of life he lived; he also identified himself with being wise and having a gift of wisdom. The title though is a bit misleading; it is not to be confused with "apologizing" or "being sorry" for one's actions. It is, Socrates attempt to defend himself and his conduct--certainly not to apologize for it. Socrates used different images or ways to describe wisdom, and that came off as being ignorant. It made the people of Athens not like him because he came off as knowing more than they did. His ignorance is what caused the trial and then he would later go on to court, and eventually be put to death. But before all the tragedy there were some views of wisdom that stuck out to me: wisdom as enlightenment, wisdom as caring for the soul, and wisdom as not knowing (Dr. Tilley).
The first image of wisdom is it as enlightenment. Scholars define enlightenment as “the state of having knowledge or understanding” (Webster’s Dictionary). This portrays wisdom as getting out of a close-minded way of thinking and seeing things as “they really are.” That’s what Socrates did; he saw ordinary things in a new truer way. This image of wisdom exemplified what it looks like to have “understanding.” An example of Socrates viewing things differently would be when he was explaining that he considered it his duty to question the supposed "wise" men and to expose their false...
...Apology, in greek, means ‘to give defense’ (###). In Plato’s Apology, Socrates is blamed for numerous acts and elegantly defends himself in front of the court. To start off, he was first accused of studying astrology and demonology and passing his knowledge and beliefs to other people. His first response to this was blatantly asking who has heard him speaking of such acts: “…should tell each other if anyone of you has ever heard me discussing such subjects to any extent at all” (19d). He also claims that if anyone has heard of him charging fees for his teachings, that that is a lie as well.
Socrates continues by saying that god at Delphi claims that he is the wisest man in Athens, and he challenges anyone who believes they are wiser. Even though Meletus refuses to believe the words that Socrates speaks, he continues to listen as Socrates further explains his viewpoint. Socrates continues by saying that the reason behind his unpopularity lies behind his ability to analyze others. He criticizes the politicians, the poets, and the craftsmen for their apparent wisdom. Socrates first examines the Politicians, saying that “…I found that those who had the highest reputation were nearly the most deficient…” (22a) meaning that they possessed little to no wisdom. Next, Socrates examined the Poets. He simply stated that the poets had no clue what they were writing about. He believes that their poems come from sheer inspiration and natural talents, and their wisdom has nothing to do...
...a rigorous understanding of traditional moral virtues; an understanding of what courage, justice, and wisdom, truly meant (Jowett, 2009). At first glance, it seems that Socrates is promoting the appreciation of the traditional virtues, and is therefore a conservative. On the contrary, I will argue that Socrates' conservative rationale serves only as a diversion from his radical intentions. In defending this statement, I will first outline Socrates' conduct and motives in the Apology. Second, I will present the argument for how this behaviour can be interpreted as being conservative using narratives from Crito and The Republic. Lastly, I will argue why this behaviour instead demonstrates that Socrates was a radical.
In the Apology, Plato provides a narrative of Socrates' defence for using the elenchus, an exhaustive questioning method, to stir the position of Athenian citizens on traditional values (Jowett, 2009). Derived from various arguments in The Apology, Crito, and The Republic, it can be found that Socrates had two motives for his conduct. The first motive stems from his notion of benefit in the spiritual realm, which is derived from his theory of virtue. He held that the best life for humans is a life of virtue, and a life of virtue entailed striving to comprehend the true essence of values (Jowett, 2009). The practice of valuing true knowledge was seen to be intrinsically good for citizens, for it adhered to the success of the human soul...
...There were many great philosophers who have contributed in making philosophy what it is today, one of them being Plato. In addition to being an outstanding philosopher, he was also a mathematician and a writer. One of Plato’s biggest inspirations was his very own teacher Socrates. Socrates never wrote down a word of what he said, but thankfully Plato was able to record it all down for him and wrote many dialogues about Socrates words and teachings. One of Plato’s most famous works was his dialogue, The Republic which was written in 380 BC. The Republic consists of ten books total each consisting of different topics concerning ancient philosophy.
From reading a short excerpt from the philosophical text: Western Philosophy: An Anthology (Second Edition) edited John Cottingham, Cottingham takes an excerpt from (Plato, Republic [Politeia, c.3800 BC], Bk V, 474b-483e. Trans. B. Jowett, in The Dialogues of Plato (Oxford: Clarendon, 1892), vol. lll, pp. 171-9)), Plato writes about knowledge versus opinion and Socrates views on each from a first person point of view. In the following excerpt there is an ongoing conversation between Socrates and Glaucon discussing their personal views and thoughts on knowledge and opinion. Socrates does not oppose of having opinions, he says they can later be turned into knowledge. These beliefs and opinions will only act as a guide to our knowledge. Socrates believes that...
...PLATO ON TRADITION AND BELIEF.
1.Socrates gets Laches to agree to a new definition of courage by arguing that not all cases of
courage are a sort of endurance.He asks Laches if he would consider courage to be noble to which
Laches replies he would.Socrates then asks him would he consider foolish endurance to be seen
as hurtful,to which Laches also agrees.With this in mind Laches agrees to a new definition of
courage to include only wise endurance. 2/5
2.They conclude that knowledge of a virtue such as courage isn't seen as being normal in the way
that it is,but being the kind of thing that is known consciously and spoken.Somebody who can talk
about the subject of courage but don't do well in battle,would have no real insight into what most
people would consider courage. 0/5
3.Socrates argues for this conclusion by saying there could be some objection to the claim that
courage is both foolish and wise.Firstly,wise courage gives you the belief that you are doing the
right thing,but don't have to,but by believing you have wise courage,it is the best thing to stay and
fight.However,knowing you havn't the resources for battle,but are considered brave enough to
stay and fight anyway,surely this can be seen as both foolish and wise courage. 2/5
4.Socrates asks Laches if he knows the nature of virtue and would they tell others of it.Laches
agrees to both questions allowing Socrates to test Laches own knowledge of...