The hypothesis of this research is the affects of caffeine and placebo on memory and metamemory. The experiment involved a total of 83 participants and took place over a course of two days. There are three independent variables that were involved over the course of two days. The variables are caffeine (day 1) and caffeine (day two), caffeine (day 1) and placebo (day two), placebo (day 1) and caffeine (day 2), and placebo (day 1) and placebo (day 2). The dependent variables that were being measured are the judgment of learning and recall memory.
The beverage that was used was an orange drink. Some of the drinks were injected with caffeine, and both caffeine and placebo drinks were injected with salt so that the participants cannot distinguish the difference between the two. On both days of the experiment participants had specific instructions such as not eating or drinking prior to the experiment. Just before the experiment they were given their beverage 30 minutes before. (Kelemen & Creely, 2003)
During day one of the experiment, the participants studied 40-paired words twice. After studying they were presented with either the immediate or delayed judgment of learning. They were prompted after on how well they can recall the second word (Kelemen & Creeley, 2003)
On day two, participants were shown one word and then asked to recall the second word that is associated with.
It was concluded that for the judgment of learning, the participants who consumed different beverages on both days, caffeine/placebo or placebo/caffeine, the results revealed that both the immediate and delayed judgment of learning scores were high. In the recall memory, the results revealed that those who consumed similar beverage on both days (caffeine/caffeine or placebo/placebo), the recalled words were higher than those who drank different beverages on both days
The hypothesis tested, shows that the data collected does not support the effect that...
...Caffeine and the PlaceboEffect
Plants produce caffeine as a protective pesticide, paralyzing feeding insects. This powerful substance has been used as a stimulant for centuries. The use of caffeine as an energy booster dates back to the Stone Age through coffee, tea and cocoa. Synonymous with caffeine, coffee has grown into a $70 billion industry with no signs of slowing down. It's a good source of antioxidants, a social atmosphere, and a legal stimulant. Coffee drinkers come back for more because of its ability to increase alertness, focus, and stamina. It is no wonder why this drug is one of the world's most popular drugs.
Although the use of coffee for ergogenic purposes is socially accepted, it is addictive. When consumed on a daily basis, the body develops a tolerance. With this addiction comes withdrawal syndrome: Coffee drinkers have reported headaches, irritability, anxiety, fatigue and decreased concentration after missing their daily dose. However, the effects of caffeine may be a result of the expectations of the user rather than the drug itself (Harrell & Juliano, 2009). In this study we will examine caffeine's placeboeffect.
Do the expected effects of caffeine impact a person's physical response to coffee?
Coffee, both caffeinated and decaffeinated
Plain paper cups
Computers with internet access
1. Recruit your subjects: Find 20...
A placebo is an inert substance that does not contain an active drug ingredient. The placeboeffect is a psychosomatic phenomenon where we observe a beneficial change in the individual due to placebo manipulation. The nocebo effect is the opposite of the placeboeffect, when a negative expectation or attitude leads to harmful or undesirable outcomes. For example, a patient taking a placebo drug may report having headaches, nausea or dizziness.
Most of the history of medicine until fairly recently has been a result of the placeboeffect, given the fairly limited and inaccurate knowledge about human anatomy and infectious diseases. One explanation for the placeboeffect is that expectation may lead to changes in behavior. Anxiety becomes reduced with positive expectation (placeboeffect). Anxiety increases with negative expectation (nocebo effect). This phenomenon might be explained on the basis of Pavlovian conditioning: When we expect to feel better after being treated, and we are highly motivated to believe that a treatment will work, therefore we are more likely to experience a placeboeffect. This is why symbols of hope and the power of suggestion play a large role in providing relief...
...phenomenon such as a Placeboeffect, a methodic itinerary must be abode by.
I. General overview
II. Mechanism of the Effect
III. Clinical Utility
IV. Symptoms, Conditions and Consequences
In our twenty first century, various remedial methods and mechanisms are presented due to the evolution of paramedical science. The healing process of the body works together with the mind. Hence, the treatment process has two dimensions; specific such as placebos and general like psychotherapies (Sheets-Johnstone, 1992, 69). Placebos are used everywhere, and backed up by a psychological tool: the PlaceboEffect. A PlaceboEffect is based on the illusion of pain relief or recovery created in an ill person’s mind. Nowadays, the field of placeboeffect has made an important progress and has become a major focus of discussions. Through the years and all the way back to the first decades, people experienced and relied on placeboeffects with or without even noticing, such as the ultimate mechanism of all: the remedy when there’s no healer. The advantage of a placeboeffect lies not in the healing powers of the medication itself, but in one’s virtual perceptions and behavior towards that ordinary fictitious-power pill (Wager, 2005, August, 175). This procedure...
...The placeboeffect is not miraculous
The word placebo come from the Latin word “I shall please” actually refers to an effective yet less understood healing process in which the involvement of that could be effective as any conventional therapy for a wide range in medical and psychological problems. Before moving further discussion about involvement of placeboeffect in medical treatment, firstly the identities ofplacebo need to be known. Generally, definition of placebos are inert tablets, sham surgery, or any other procedure, is actually simulated or other medically ineffectual treatment for certain medical condition intended to merely deceived the recipient by hoping takers experienced actual improvement in medical condition. As an inability to fully explain the system of placebo works, many people think that this is a spontaneous remission or in other word they are feeling better for unknown reasons- some people really think that this a pure miracle since the assumption of the placeboeffects relies on something so ethereal and it already become a major factor therapy despite science could not give fully explanation of this phenomenon. Discussing about miracle is not an easy task as the miracle could never been explained by logical thinking and proven scientifically but at the same time we could not simply ignore the following...
...* Citation Page
Chou, P. (2007). The effects of background music on the reading performance of taiwanese esl students. New York: Self Published. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=zVz_Lv9OnN0C&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&dq=effects of background music on concentration&source=bl&ots=xRZ4pvia4r&sig=lzJhKQmZfw7WXV-WD1hyJhT9I4A&hl=en&sa=X&ei=I3otUeKHBo_o8gSBooHYAw&ved=0CH8Q6AEwCQ
* Hallman, Price, Katsarou, S. J. G. (2002, November 2).The effects of background music on primary school pupil's task performance . Retrieved from http://coe.georgiasouthern.edu/foundations/bwgriffin/edur7130/RR_backgroundmusic.pdf
* Hussain, S. (2010, October 10). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://sonyahussain.blogspot.com/
* Manthei, M. (n.d.). Effects of popular and classical background music on the math test scores of undergraduate students. Retrieved from http://music.arts.usf.edu/rpme/effects.htm
* Rong-Hwa, H. (2000). Effects of background music on concentration of workers. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation,38(4), Retrieved from http://iospress.metapress.com/content/d3j2733678t877nj/
The page should go at the end of your research … and should be indented like the first one…. Besides that you did a really good job.. just fix it for when you need to turn in the rest of the paper
...“Placeboeffect is the term applied by medical science to the therapeutical and healing effects of inert medicines and/or ritualistic or faith healing manipulations.  . When referring to medicines, placebo is a preparation which is pharmacologically inert but which may have a therapeutical effect based solely on the power of suggestion. It may be administered in any of the ways in which pharmaceutical products are administered.
Sometimes known as non-specific effects or subject-expectancy effects, a so-called placeboeffect occurs when a patient's symptoms are altered in some way (i.e., alleviated or exacerbated) by an otherwise inert treatment, due to the individual expecting or believing that it will work. Some people consider this to be a remarkable aspect of human physiology; others consider it to be an illusion arising from the way medical experiments are conducted. The placeboeffect occurs when a patient takes an inert substance (a "sugar pill") in conjunction with the suggestion from an authority figure that the pill will aid in healing and the patient’s condition improves. This effect has been known for years.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placebo_effect
"The physician's belief in the treatment and the patient's faith in the physician exert a mutually reinforcing...
New Insight Into the Placebo and Nocebo Effect
In Helen Pilcher’s article, “The New Witch Doctors: How Belief Can Kill,” she discusses the ethical dilemmas of the power of patients’ beliefs in the nocebo and placeboeffects. The power of belief is so strong it can either make the patient feel better or become even sicker. This causes a problem for doctors because no matter how they state the truth it always ends up becoming a problem in the end.
A placebo is a dummy pill that can produce a very real response in the patient. This effect convinces people that they will feel better when in reality they did not take any medication. The expectations of the patient play an important role in the placeboeffect; the more a person expects the treatment to work, the more likely he or she is to feel better. For example, a patient participates in a study to determine the effectiveness of a new headache drug. After taking the drug, she finds that her headache quickly disappears and she feels much better. However, she later learns that she was in the placebo group and that the drug she was given was just a sugar pill. This patient was highly motivated by her belief that this treatment would actual work.
Even though the placeboeffect is just a dummy pill it can cause problems with the patient who is undergoing the treatment....
...9 April, 2013
Homeopathy’s Perceived Effects are the Result of the PlaceboEffect
Homeopathy is a paranormal form of alternative medicine that relies on natural remedies to cure illnesses. Much of the current scientific community is skeptic of homeopathy’s effectiveness as it is rooted in unconventional beliefs of healing that do not necessarily involve medical treatment with an active ingredient. Homeopathy is based on the paranormal belief that maladies may be treated by medicine absent of an active ingredient. This means that the results of homeopathy, by reason, are based only on the placeboeffect, or the quantifiable and observable improvement in health or behavior that is not attributable to the medication. In this essay I will explain homeopathy’s reliance on the law of similars, the effectiveness of homeopathic medicine, and the scientific value of homeopathic medicine. I will show that homeopathy’s practice of treatment with inactive medicine owes its perceived effectiveness to the placeboeffect, not any actual influence of real medicine.
Founder Samuel Hahnemann’s beliefs formed the practice of homeopathy. The paranormal belief in homeopathy is based on the principle of ‘like cures like,’ the idea that a sick person with certain symptoms may be cured by the substance that causes the same symptoms in a healthy person (Hahnemann, 48-50). Hahnemann believed...