Assignment Two: 'Photojournalism and Representation'
Thomas Hoepker, Magnum Photos, 2001.
Stuart Hall (1978) stated that 'the media define for the majority of the population what significant events are taking place, but, also, they offer powerful interpretations of how to understand these events.' This quote is relevant to this photograph as it both reflects and challenges Hall's claim in regards to the power of media representation, and can be applied to this example of photojournalism. This photograph was taken on the eleventh of September 2001 by Magnum Photos' photojournalist Thomas Hoepker. It was published in the English newspaper 'The Guardian' in 2011 to mark the ten year anniversary of the 9/11 bombing on the Twin Towers in New York, America. It is now regarded as "one of the most controversial images of 9/11" (Jones, 2011).
This example of photojournalism uses photographic codes and techniques in the image. It is photographed using a low angle long shot to show the people perhaps sitting leisurely in the sun. In comparison to the burning Twin Towers, this small group of people may be seen as inferior to the dominant image of the towers in the background, and perhaps as though they are unaware of the catastrophe at hand. However, if this media image had been photographed from a different angle, for example a high angle shot from the women wearing an orange shirt's perspective, the level of concern from the group may have been more evident to viewers, and not so blazé towards the situation in the distance.
The aforementioned quotation by Hall (1978) can be interpreted as that the media has high influential power over what news in the world is actually newsworthy, and how their viewers might interpret events, images and footage portrayed by media organisations. In turn, perhaps, the media can also influence the way that people respond to such events, images and footage. This relates to the concept of representation, which is a common practice in the media. O'Shaugnessy & Stadler (2012) define the concept of representation with three meanings: 'to look like or to resemble; to stand in for something or someone; and to present a second time -- to re-present'. The media uses representation in order to define and present important news to their viewers and the world.
These concepts are reflected in Hoepker's image. Media organisations worldwide portrayed the 9/11 bombing event as a catastrophe, the dawn of a new era, and potentially one of the hardest events that modern American citizens would ever have to overcome in their lifetimes. Because this information and media figure's thoughts, opinions and interpretations of this event were so widespread through mass media in 2001, the viewers of the media were highly influenced by other people's thoughts, opinions and interpretations, and were possibly impartial to interpret it for themselves, and perhaps just saw this image as 'just another 9/11 impact photograph'.
However, Hoepker's media representation also challenges Hall's aforementioned statement regarding the power of the media and representation. This can be seen through the implied narrative. The man sitting to the far right of the media image, Walter Sipser, stated in an interview about the photograph with Slate Magazine that: ' A snapshot can make mourners attending a funeral look like they're having a party'. He also stated in the interview, 'A more honest conclusion might start by acknowledging just how easily a photograph can be manipulated, especially in the advancement of one's own biases or in the service of one's own career'. These quotes demonstrate to us as viewers just how contradictory photojournalism and the news media portray such catastrophes and events such as 9/11 which is being portrayed here by Hoepker.
This event may have been deemed as significant by Hoepker, and crucially important for him to photograph and...
in Indian Newspapers
Course Name: C 3
Name: Irshad Shaikh
Roll No: 11
I, Irshad Shaikh, a student of H.B. Institute of Communication and Management, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavans College, wish to undertake a study on the ‘Analytical Study of Photojournalism in Indian Newspapers’
Journalism is a broad field with various specializations like sports, film & television, photo, print etc. Of these, one of the leading streams today is photojournalism. It is an integral part of journalism as photographs play a vital role in depicting events. Photojournalism involves application of photography skills and aesthetics to the area of news reporting and journalism. In other words, it is the practice of creating images in order to tell a news story. It includes collecting, editing and presenting of news material (pictures) for publication or broadcast to the news media like newspapers, magazines, television channels, websites and other journals. At times, a single photograph can convey a news story of thousand words. It is the skill of the photojournalist to take photos with such impact.
Since TV burst into our homes to stay, it has been competing and gaining territories from radio, magazines and newspapers. As a result, television has been slowly eroding the power, electiveness and contents of newspapers and magazines which have had to adapt to...
Faking images in Photojournalism
In the article “Faking images in Photojournalism”, the overall message is that we should let the truth be seen. I feel this article seems very legit. From the beginning of this article the author mentions that “The faking of photographs, either through stage direction by the photographer or through darkroom manipulation…etc” we all know that faking the images is bad but for some reason faking images is necessary for some people and is all man made. After the invention of the computer and the technology leading photographic faking to another level of concern. In the article, the author mentions how the photo were fakes for propaganda purpose,
Such as newspapers showed faked photographs of Kaiser Wilhelm cutting off the hands of babies. Another faking technic of faking images is called April Fool photographic and this kind of technic were popular during first half of this century. There are some examples shown in Curtis MacDougall’s book. The major one such as a photographic composite of the Capitol dome collapsing in 1933. More over and more serious about faking images is that it involves some political campaigns. The author wrote “A 1928 campaign picture of Herbet Hoover and his running mate was faked because Hoover refused to pose with the vice-presidential candidate, Charles Curtis. Life magazine revealed a composite photograph of a Maryland Democrat...
Final Research Paper
The Evolution of Photojournalism
For decades stories have been printed to spread news to readers around the world, but it was the conception of photojournalism which created the real capturing of events and brought stories to life for readers. It was a photo that captured the execution of a suspected Vietnam terrorist and the terror of a young girl on fire that shocked readers around the globe and changed the way they viewed the Vietnam War. It was a photo of the battleship Maine sinking near Cuba that increased popularity and support for Cuban independence from Spain and U.S. involvement in the Spanish-American War. It was a combination of photos of the Great Depression and the Korean War that changed the way people viewed the world. Photography creates a “real life” perspective of stories and events and adds aesthetic pleasure that a written story alone cannot do. It is this reason that photojournalism became popularized and took on such a significant role in broadcasting and news coverage. Photojournalism can be observed in political, sports and entertainment magazines, adding pictorial narrative and realistic depictions of events for readers.
Some of the earliest and most influential examples of photojournalism can be seen in magazines such as Life and Time capturing images of World War II, but this phenomenon quickly spread, covering political features and stories....
...FA 1041 Black & White Photography
Ethics in PhotojournalismPhotojournalism is a way of telling a story that can often be more effective than a 1,000-word article. The images that are captured can change the emotions quite vividly of those who are viewing the picture. The best photojournalists will not only capture an image that tells the story, but the images also have to be aesthetically pleasing, include some action and take in emotion. Photojournalists take their images from interesting angles, and they provide depth of field that catches the eye of those who are viewing it. But there is more to being a photojournalists than just a storyteller and an artist, they also have to decide when taking a photo is going too far, and when it is necessary to telling a story. The artistic elements only scratch the surface of the complexities of being effective photojournalists. These storytellers must look out for touchy subjects and taste, and they look to balance effective journalism with good taste.
Ethics is a major part of journalism. The images are extremely powerful, as they get to a lot of people and are responsible for shaping culture in various ways. The types of judgment calls that occur with photojournalism are represented through images such as those that were captured when people jumped off the side of the World Trade Centre when the building was on fire after the terrorist attacks. Other tough calls...
...Photography has been around since 1800’s and stories have been around forever, so putting them together Photojournalism becomes possible. Putting stories and pictures together have shaped magazines, newspapers even lives. Action is captured by camera lens and told by writers that share stories needing to be heard. With the increasing technology process Photography has become known to all and becoming more common. The digital world is taking over Photography and will keep getting better as the future and technology progress.
The word Photography is derived from the Greek language, “photo” meaning “light” and “Graphein” that means, “to draw”(Bellis 1). Photography is “ a method of recording images by the action of light or related radiation on a sensitive material”(Bellis 1). The photograph was the ultimate response to a social and cultural appetite for a more accurate and real looking representation of reality, a need that had its origins in the renaissance” (Langton 11,1). The first goal of photography was reportage, which were the most potential. Context is important to photographers; photographers have to show images in a “larger social event, whose significance goes beyond the individual act (Westbrook 3). In 1000 A.D a man named Alhazen created a Pin Hole camera, which “explained why images were upside down” (Bellis 2). In the summer of 1827 Joseph Nicephore Niepice took the first image with the Pin Hole camera. Prior to Joseph’s image...
The Political Representation: Meanings and Implications
Political Representation: Past, Present, and Future
European Studies II
Today, in countries which choose representative democracy as a form of state, ordinary citizens have the right to one man-one vote and thus they, in regular elections, vote for a political candidate or a political party which they want to be their own representative. This form of state is called ‘representative democracy’ or ‘modern constitutional representative government’ or political representation in general. Nowadays, the legitimacy and authority of the representative government is regarded as resulting from its being an expression of the will of the people. However, this expression as the source of the legitimate authorization for public acts is indirect: citizens transfer it to their representatives as intermediaries. The representatives as intermediaries are those who make the people’s will present on its behalf. Thus, political representation has its theoretical scheme two political actors: the citizens or the people and the representative. This scheme of political representation which looks simple actually has many political implications for political actors and processes. My final paper is concerned with exploring...
...Studio Photography vs. Photojournalism
By Giovanna McHenry
Instructor: Rachel Turnage
October 20, 2010
Studio Photography and Photojournalism are two very different types of photography which offer personal and financial rewards. Both are highly exciting and give the opportunity to have fun, see new sites, and meet new people, but both also have their downfalls and headaches. There are many differences between both career fields, but making a choice as to which direction to take with a photography career can be broken down in a very simple manner. The most important factors to consider are job flexibility, building a networking community, and the financial weight of both fields.
Studio photography allows one to work their own hours, especially if one owns their own studio. This means owning a studio gives the opportunity to make a schedule as they wish to work around the daily errands and duties. This can be rewarding because there is more time to get things done around the house, more time to spend with the family, and more time to read a book or take a walk. This is all another way of saying that studio photography offers job flexibility. Photojournalism can allow one to work their own hours, but it is sometimes the images that are presented are not acceptable enough for the editorial business. This can cause one to ponder the effectiveness of owning a photography company or freelancing. However, a...
...Photojournalism has long been considered to have a tradition of reflecting the truth. It has been a major element in newspaper and magazine reporting since the early 20th century. It was probably only about a century ago when people believed that what they saw in photographs was factual. This impact of visual image as seen by the viewer was based on the old belief that "the camera never lies". Wheeler says that photojournalism has "acquired a special standing in the public mind, a confidence that photo can reflect reality in a uniquely compelling and credible way." (Wheeler T, 2002, p. 3) This acquisition is formed by a creation of a powerful picture, which is the combination of both truthfulness and visual impact. "In general, photojournalism is defined as a descriptive term for reporting visual information through various media such as newspapers and magazines." (Newton J, 2001, p. 3) The mid-20th century saw the rise in photojournalism. As Wheeler (Wheeler T, 2002, p. 3) mentioned, "by World War II, America had become a certifiably visual, predominantly photographic culture."
Photography is a form of visual representation of events to the public. It is traditionally defined as writing with light'. Photography was more than factual recording of truthful observation. It could be an expression of emotional reaction to life. Although photography has always been thought of as the capturing and the...