According to the Special Education Department's "Glossary of Psychiatric Disorders" catalogue, a "phobia is a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that results in a compelling desire to avoid it". A phobia is not an illness or a mental disorder. Nor is it a lack of will-power, or 'moral fibre', or determination. A phobia is a syndrome that can both develop independently within the limits of neurosis (after a caused fright or a serious psychical shock) and be a result of mental illnesses (depressions, manic-depressive psychosis). Only psychiatrist can reveal what is a reason for a certain fear. Also, there is a hereditary predisposition to phobias. Phobic disorders usually develop in timid, vulnerable, and taking hard the failure people. (Uvarova, psychology lecture) The essence of this "illness" is in anxiety appearance (to the extent of a panic) in certain situations. As a result, sick people begin avoiding it (for example, using an underground or taking the lift). Anxiety does not abate because of a realization of a fact that other people don't consider similar situation to be anyhow dangerous.
(According to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Web Site and my psychology class lectures)
Agoraphobia is a fear of open spaces, crowd or impossibility to return back home right away. As a whole, agoraphobia can be determined as a fear of leaving the house. Quite often, patients turn to be chained to their flats completely. During the process of assault, patients have a fear of death because of the heart rupture or asthma. An assault lasts approximately for a half an hour; after it fear steps back. Assaults' frequency varies from everyday to several times per year. In the course of time, patient begins avoiding situations, which provoke assault, entirely, and can feel only feebly-expressed anxiety during a long period of time. Claustrophobia
SOCIAL PHOBIAS ARE ANXIETY DISORDERS THAT HAVE THE CAPABILITY TO CLOUD MANY AREAS IN OUR LIVES AND ARE CHARACTERIZED BY THEIR SYMPTOMS AS WELL AS CAUSES. TREATMENTS ARE AVAILABLE AND CAN BE IMPLEMENTED TO SUCCESSFULLY CURE SOCIAL PHOBIAS AND FORM A BETTER COMMUNITY.
'I have not been out of the house for six months. I did go to see my doctor at Christmas, but I got into such a state that I nearly collapsed, and now I get him to see me here. I feel safe here and I don't get the awful feelings, but I'm not even relaxed at home if I know a stranger is visiting. I often have a drink to calm me if the paperboy is coming to collect the paper money or the gas man is coming to read the meter. Sometimes, though, I just refuse to answer the door.'
Overcoming anxiety Helen Kennerley (Robinson 1997)
A situation like this may strike some us as plain absurd, even plunging into the realms of insanity; Yet, this is what people with phobia go through on a daily basis. Anxiety Disorders af-fect about 40 million American adults age 18 years and older (about 18%) in a given year, caus-ing them to be filled with fearfulness and uncertainty (Kessler et al.). Unlike the relatively mild, such as having butterflies in your stomach on the first date, or feeling fearful when you hear strange noises in your household, phobias and anxiety disorders can last from as soon as 6 months or even as long as a whole...
...Part 1. Phobia
1.1 Meaning of phobia.
A phobia (from the Greek: φόβος, phóbos, meaning "fear" or "morbid fear") is an intense and persistent fear of certain situations, activities, things, animals, or people. The main symptom of this disorder is the excessive and unreasonable desire to avoid the feared stimulus. When the fear is beyond one's control, and if the fear is interfering with daily life, then a diagnosis under one of the anxiety disorders can be made.
This is caused by what are called, neutral, unconditioned, and conditioned stimuli, which trigger either conditioned or unconditioned responses. An example would be a person who was attacked by a dog (the unconditioned stimulus) would respond with an unconditioned response. When this happens, the unconditioned stimulus of them being attacked by the dog would become conditioned, and to this now conditioned stimulus, they would develop a conditioned response. If the occurance had enough of an impact on this certain person then they would develop a fear of that dog, or in some cases, an irrational fear of all dogs.
Phobias are the most common form of anxiety disorders. An American study by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) found that between 8.7% and 18.1% of Americans suffer from phobias. Broken down by age and gender,...
...Fear And Phobias
What is your greatest fear? Do you know the answer? A lot of people don't. We just know that we sometimes feel fear and most people don't like it. Sometimes, people like the feeling of fear. Have you ever heard the term "adrenaline junkie"? That's those people that like fear. In this article, I will tell you everything you need to know about fear and phobias.Fear
The Origin and Reasons of Fear
The sensation of fear is related to 2 parts of the brain, the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. The prefrontal cortex is the body's "hub of safety" if you will. It receives stimuli and determines whether it's potentially dangerous, and sends signals to different parts of the brain to release adrenaline, hence the term "adrenaline junkie". This release of adrenaline is called the "fight or flight response". The amygdala, part of the limbic system, controls all strong emotions. It is what stores strong points of fear, causing us to have a phobia of that situation. It automatically sends a signal to the prefrontal cortex, which causes the prefrontal cortex to invoke the fight-or-flight response. This happens when the phobic gets near, sees, or, in severe cases, thinks about the thing they are phobic towards.
Picture of the limbic system....
A phobia is an excessive or unreasonable fear of an object, place or situation. Simple phobias are fears of specific things such as insects, infections, flying. Agoraphobia is a fear of being in places where one feels "trapped" or unable to get help, such as in crowds, on a bus, or standing in a queue. A social phobia is a marked fear of social or performance situations.
Phobias are extremely common. Sometimes they start in childhood for no apparent reason; sometimes they emerge after a traumatic event; and sometimes the develop from an attempt to make sense of an unexpected and intense anxiety or panic (e.g. "I feel fearful, therefore I must be afraid of something").
When the phobic person actually encounters, or even anticipates being in the presence of the feared object or situation, she/he experiences immediate anxiety. The physical symptoms of anxiety may include a racing heart, shortness of breath, sweating, chest or abdominal discomfort, trembling, etc. and the emotional component involves an intense fear - of losing control, embarrassing oneself, or passing out.
Commonly people try to escape, and then to avoid the feared situation wherever possible. This may be fairly easy if the feared object is rarely encountered (e.g. fear of snakes) and avoidance will not therefore restrict the person's life very...
...Fear and Phobias
I’m sure that at least one of you is afraid of snakes or spiders. Maybe you have a fear of blood or injections, but the fact is all people have fears or situations they would rather avoid. It is part of everyday life. However, what is fear?
The dictionary explains fear as a distressing emotion aroused by impending danger, evil, pain etc. whether the threat is real or imagined. Biologically fear is necessary, because it warns the organism of life-threatening dangers and with that secures the survival. Jet, fear can be extremely good and can make us handle situations better, increase our creativity and fantasy and with that lets us achieve excellent results, because of high concentration.
Although fear helped our ancestors to survive, we, as individuals but also as a society, are suffering from an over dosage of this essential feeling in the modern world. This fear develops into a phobia.
The difference between a phobia and a sensible fear is the panic that grips the phobic person. A phobia is like a fear gone wild, robbing a person of reason. For example, a respect for the dangers of falling off a cliff reflects a healthy sense of reality; but a panicky preoccupation with heights can prevent a person from working in a tall building or...
II fear and phobias
a) What is phobia
b) Difference of fear and phobia
c) Part of the brain which is responsible for fear and phobia
d) Classification of phobia
Specific phobia- meaning
Blood injury injection phobia
Natural environment phobia
Social phobia – meaning
Agoraphobia – meaning
A phobia is an extreme, persistent fear that interferes with normal living. It is not necessarily an irrational fear. Many people have phobias of snakes, spiders, lightning, heights, and other items that really are dangerous. What is irrational is the excessive degree of the fear, leading to panic in the presence of the feared object. In most cases, people with phobias are not so much afraid of the object itself but of their own reactions. They fear that they will have a heart attack or that they will embarrass themselves by trembling or fainting. Consequently, They fear that they will have a heart attack or that they will embarrass themselves...
...Institute of Mental Health, phobias affect approximately 10% of adults. There are a number of explanations for why phobias develop, including evolutionary and behavioral theories. Whatever the cause, phobias are a treatable condition that can be overcome with cognitive and behavioral therapy techniques.
What do people fear most? The following phobias are ten of the most common fear-objects that lead to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and breathlessness. In some cases, these symptoms escalate into a full-blown panic attack. These common phobias typically involve the environment, animals, or specific situations.
The fear of spiders.
This phobia tends to affect women more than men.
The fear of snakes.
Often attributed to evolutionary causes, personal experiences, or cultural influences.
The fear of heights.
This fear can lead to anxiety attacks and avoidance of high places.
The fear of situations in which escape is difficult.
This may include crowded areas, open spaces, or situations that are likely to trigger a panic attack. People will begin avoiding these trigger events, sometimes to the point that they cease leaving their home.
Approximately one third of people with panic disorder develop...
Phobias aren't just extreme fears. They are irrational fears of a particular thing. For instance, you may be able to ski the world's tallest mountains with ease but be unable to go above the 5th floor of an office building. (NIMH, 1995) Even though adults with phobias realize that these fears are irrational, they often find that facing or even thinking about the feared object or situation brings on a panic attack or severe anxiety. Affecting an estimated 6.3 million adult Americans(Lefton, L. A., 1997), phobias are twice as common in women as in men. The causes of specific phobias are not well understood, though there is some evidence that these phobias may run in families. Specific phobias usually first appear during childhood or adolescence and tend to persist into adulthood.
Definition of Disorder
By definition, phobias are "irrational fears," that interfere with one's everyday life or daily routine. If your fear of high places prevents you from crossing necessary bridges to get to work, that fear is irrational. If your fears keep you from enjoying life or even preoccupy your thinking so that you're unable to work, sleep or do things you wish to do, then it becomes irrational.A phobia is something a person fears to the point that...