All kinds of Phobia
Though there are many types of anxiety disorder the most common type of anxiety disorders are phobias. Phobias which means “fear” in Greek, is an excessive fear or anxiety to a situation or object. Phobias, as is all anxiety disorder, can cause heavy interference in maintaining a normal life. Typically one in seven adults will experience some form of phobia in their lifetime. Though phobias are seen to be of different genres, the experiences of phobias are similar to one another. Phobias can also be a lead way to other types of mental disorders, such as, depression, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. There are three types of phobias, agoraphobia, specific phobia and social phobia. The definition, the typical prognosis, several causations and treatments have been diagnosed and discovered in today’s time, but are continually being reevaluated for further specification.
Agoraphobia is Greek, which in literal translations is “fear of the marketplace.” Agoraphobia is the fear of being in a place where escape or help is not readily available. This term was first used by Westphal in 1871 in order to describe those with anxiety and fear of public places. It was not until the late 1970s that this disorder was widely recognized (Fisher 24). In the DSM-IV, agoraphobia was not its own diagnosis. It was indicated as an initial reaction to other anxiety disorders such as panic disorders, but in DSM-V, it came to be its own diagnosis. This was due to the many claims that there was no panic experience with agoraphobia. (Lyons 144). In Agoraphobia there are two main features: anxiety in being situated where escape is difficult or embarrassment occurs or where help is not accessible and where avoidance occurs along with serious discomfort or where a companion is needed before and during the situation.
For someone who is agoraphobic, the fear of having a panic attack (a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort that develops abruptly and reaches a peak within 10 minutes) will typically lead to the avoidance of these situations. Some symptoms of panic attacks are palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, choking, chest pain or discomfort, nausea, dizziness, feeling faint, derealization or depersonalization, fear of losing control, fear of dying, parasthesias, and or hot or chill flushes. These symptoms will typically occur during someone experiencing a phobic response. There are typically five situations in where avoidances occur: the use of public transportations, being in an open space, being in an enclosed space, being in a crowd, or being outside of the home alone (DSM-V). For agoraphobia the occurrence or idea of the situation occurring will almost always cause fear or anxiety. These symptoms will typically last for 6 months or more. Having agoraphobia causes extreme distress and fear which will typically affect daily routines. The significant distress can impair social, occupational or other various important areas needed of normal functioning. This can then lead to the individual having a lower income and education or even unemployment (DSM-V). Though these situations might occur, it is still not known whether the phobia leads to these poor circumstances or whether the stress of these circumstances causes the phobia. Many features of these situations is fear of not having help when the panic attack occurs or being embarrassed if help does occur, this reaction has been termed “fear of fear” ( Fischer 27). It has also been noticed that if there is another medical condition present with agoraphobia, the fear, anxiety, or avoidance is more heightened.
Agoraphobia usually occurs to those in late twenties. The panic disorder will usually begin as early as mid-teens, but this disorder is rarely found in early childhood and in late life (Fischer 26). It can be noticed that there seems to be a gap between the...
...Known as a mental disorder a phobia is a persistent fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to compelling desire to avoid it. Phobias tend to affect the way people live their lives, for example, their working and social environments, considering that they last for a very long time and are capable to cause intense psychological physical stress. It is considered today the most common mental and anxiety disorder in the United States (Matig Mavissakalian & David H. Barlow 1981 pp 2). There are many phobias such as: the fear of aging, fear of changing, fear of clowns, fear of getting fat, fear of being in closed spaces, etc.
One who encounters phobias has to deal with a collection of uncontrollable symptoms when their fear is presented. The mild cases, if not psychology cured, tend to grow into fears that are not able to be controlled which lead a person to feel like their life is being taking away from their own control (Erin Gersley 2001). In order to avoid their fear he or she will do anything in their power to not have to encounter it. Although feeling powerless and helpless, the people with the phobias tend to believe that their fears are irrational and exaggerated. These fears are avoided because when encountered they will bring the inability to function normally due to the anxiety provoked. Physical reactions are also encountered although psychologically is mostly common....
Phobias aren't just extreme fears. They are irrational fears of a particular thing. For instance, you may be able to ski the world's tallest mountains with ease but be unable to go above the 5th floor of an office building. (NIMH, 1995) Even though adults with phobias realize that these fears are irrational, they often find that facing or even thinking about the feared object or situation brings on a panic attack or severe anxiety. Affecting an estimated 6.3 million adult Americans(Lefton, L. A., 1997), phobias are twice as common in women as in men. The causes of specific phobias are not well understood, though there is some evidence that these phobias may run in families. Specific phobias usually first appear during childhood or adolescence and tend to persist into adulthood.
Definition of Disorder
By definition, phobias are "irrational fears," that interfere with one's everyday life or daily routine. If your fear of high places prevents you from crossing necessary bridges to get to work, that fear is irrational. If your fears keep you from enjoying life or even preoccupy your thinking so that you're unable to work, sleep or do things you wish to do, then it becomes irrational.A phobia is something a person fears to the point that they feel they have to change how they behave.(Lefton, L. A., 1997)
The Wikipedia encyclopedia gave this as a...
A phobia is an excessive or unreasonable fear of an object, place or situation. Simple phobias are fears of specific things such as insects, infections, flying. Agoraphobia is a fear of being in places where one feels "trapped" or unable to get help, such as in crowds, on a bus, or standing in a queue. A social phobia is a marked fear of social or performance situations.
Phobias are extremely common. Sometimes they start in childhood for no apparent reason; sometimes they emerge after a traumatic event; and sometimes the develop from an attempt to make sense of an unexpected and intense anxiety or panic (e.g. "I feel fearful, therefore I must be afraid of something").
When the phobic person actually encounters, or even anticipates being in the presence of the feared object or situation, she/he experiences immediate anxiety. The physical symptoms of anxiety may include a racing heart, shortness of breath, sweating, chest or abdominal discomfort, trembling, etc. and the emotional component involves an intense fear - of losing control, embarrassing oneself, or passing out.
Commonly people try to escape, and then to avoid the feared situation wherever possible. This may be fairly easy if the feared object is rarely encountered (e.g. fear of snakes) and avoidance will not therefore restrict the person's life very much. At other times (e.g. agoraphobia, social phobia) avoiding the...
...Strange and ridiculous phobias:
Leukophobia - Fear of the color white
Genuphobia - Fear of knees.
Octophobia - Fear of the figure 8.
Papyrophobia - Fear of paper.
Random stuff- fear of phobia- phobophobia
Names — Nomatophobia
The fear of names.
Phobia - the mere mention of it can make some people's hair stand on end. Yes, there is such a thing as fear of phobias. Called phobophobia, it happens to a person who dreads being frightened by everything. This type of phobia is different from the fear of everything, which is termed panophobia. Phobophobia, unlike other types of phobia, is more anxiety-related than being based on fear of a single object or situation. People with phobophobia think they most likely have a phobia, but they cannot figure out just what it is. They worry too much about not understanding what causes their fear of being afraid. Simply put, phonophobia is the worry of fear itself.
Fear of phobias can develop from other types of phobias. The intense fear that a person feels toward the other phobia may cause him or her to believe that the condition can lead to something worse. Fearing one's phobia may aggravate the impact of that phobia. When anxiety disorders are left untreated, phobophobia may also develop. This type of phobia may also be a result of a...
...Module 5 Essay
Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy
Word Count 2150
In This essay I shall describe in detail the individual elements, Stress, Anxiety, Habits and Phobias. Firstly I shall describe how these issues manifest within the subconscious, and then I shall address the relationship between the conditions, and how these can come about. Following this I shall discuss the treatment process of my chosen element in more detail (anxiety).
Beginning with Stress. Stress can often over lap with anxiety, but I shall try to describe them individually before divulging into their inter-relations. The dictionary describes stress as “ a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances.” Stress is linked to our ‘fight of flight’ survival instinct; it has been present from our prehistoric ancestors, as a survival technique. This technique created a sense of fear, and arousal in the subconscious to help flea from harm. Nowadays, we face different threats, as modern day survival depends on our placement in society, and the role of hunter-gatherer has been replaced by earning through means of occupation to supply for our families. This modern day way of life has created more complex threat, and a more deep-rooted variety of stresses such as our social standing, job status, high expectations and other modern...
...Analyse different explanations of the development of phobias
(use at least three perspectives)
By Eftychia Marathia
Everyone has experienced a feeling of anxiety at one time or another in their lives. It may have been when one deals with issues of work, school, or relationships with family, friends, or significant others. One may also have felt fear about something in particular. For example, fear of heights, closed spaces, or spiders. In the field of psychology there are several different theories of the motivation of phobias. In this assignment, the cognitive, biological and learning perspectives on the motivation of fear and anxiety will be discussed.
There is an overall basic distinction between fear and anxiety. Anxiety is a vague unpleasant emotional state with qualities of apprehension, dread, distress, and uneasiness. In addition to these, it is objectless. Phobias are similar to anxiety except that phobias have a specific object. When some optimal level of stimulation or arousal is exceeded, one experiences anxiety. It can be an adaptive healthy response or a debilitating one. In the latter case mentioned, one may lose a large measure of ability to think, act and perform. Anxiety is manifested in three ways: in physiological reactions (biological and inherited), in a person’s thoughts (cognitive) and actions (behavioral).
Under the biological perspective, there are three basic conditions which elicit...
Phobias and Addiction
January 26, 2014
Phobias and Addiction
Webster Dictionary defines phobia as “a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to compelling desire to avoid it” ("PHOBIA," n.d) Whereas Addiction is defined as “the state of being enslaved to a habit or practice or something that is psychologically or physical habit-forming, as narcotics, to such extent its cessation causes severe trauma” ("addiciton," n.d). So can a phobia be classical condition or an addiction be operant conditioned into existence? Some scientists believe that it can, but then the question is what is operant and classical conditioning? Also what is extinction mean and how is it achieved in both conditions? These are the topics I will be answer and I will also be giving examples to each phobia and addiction that can happen through classical and operant conditioning.
“Classical conditioning is when an environmental stimulus leads to a learned response through pairing of an unconditioned stimulus” (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). For example Ivan Pavlov experiment with dogs. He did a study based on dogs and conditioning them to salivate by hearing a bell or a fork being pinged. Basically he would give dogs food after the bell rang. So after a couple tries he would then noticed that the dogs would salivate...
Psychology Block 4
A phobia is an intense fear of things, activities, animals or even other people, that is uncontrollable. People suffering from phobias usually suffer from anxiety attacks when they find themselves in the situations, things or the person they have fear of. Phobias are more often gotten through traumatic experiences though some of them are inherent to the victims. If it is untreated,phobias can cause long term damage on the mental and physical health of a person, and in a recent study, it shows that phobias are most common in women and about 19% of women have a phobia. A very common phobia in most people is being embarrassed, especially in social situations. An example of this can be presenting a project in front of your class, asking out a girl, or simply just being embarrassed of a situation.
A lot of hard work from scientist has been made to find the reason, function, explanation and solutions to phobias. They try to find special treatments made for patients with phobias so that they can easily and quickly get rid of them. Different scientific departments dealing with mental health disorders and psychological processes all have different definitions, per say, of the behavioral phenomena and its cause. Scientists in the evolutionary field, who study the evolution of humans, believe...