A phobia is an irrational fear, a kind of anxiety disorder in which the sufferer has a relentless dread of a situation, living creature, place or thing. People with a phobia go to great lengths to avoid a perceived danger which is much greater in their minds than in real life. If confronted with the source of their phobia, the person will suffer enormous distress, which can interfere with their normal function; it can sometimes lead to total panic. For some people, even thinking about their phobia is immensely distressing.
A phobia starts when a person begins organizing their lives around avoiding the object of their fear. A phobia is much more serious than a simple fear. Sufferers have an overpowering need to steer clear of anything which triggers their anxiety.
If the phobia is of something the phobic person very rarely comes into contact with, such as snakes, their daily lives will not be affected. However, some complex phobias are impossible to avoid, such as agoraphobia (fear of leaving home or public places) or social phobia (fear of being among groups of people).
Non-psychological phobias - photophobia means sensitivity to light. For example, if you have conjunctivitis or a migraine your eyes may be particularly sensitive to light. This does not mean the person is afraid of light. One of the symptoms of rabies is hydrophobia, which is the inability to drink water.
Discrimination or prejudice - some words which include the word "phobia" do not refer to fear, but rather to prejudice or discrimination. Homophobia is not an uncontrollable fear of homosexual people; it is a dislike, a discrimination against them. Some older people may dislike youths or teenagers (ephebiphobia). Xenophobia is a dislike of strangers, foreigners or the unknown.
There are three main categories of phobias:
• Specific phobias (simple phobias) - involve a disproportionate fear about specific situations, living creatures, places, activities, or things. Examples include a fear of:
The two cateogories below, social phobia and agoraphobia are known as complex phobias. They are linked to a deep-rooted fear or anxiety about certain situations, incidents or circumstances, which make them much more disabling than simple phobias.
• Social phobia - now called social anxiety disorder. A person with social phobia finds being in social situations difficult and sometimes unbearable. Going to parties, weddings, functions, or exhibitions cause sufferers anxiety; there is fear of being embarrassed or humiliated in public. The ultimate nightmare for a person with social phobia is probably to have to talk in public or act on a stage of front of an audience.
There is a fear of being judged by other people. People affected with social phobia feel that they will be scrutinized and singled out in the crowd, which would be an unbearably embarrassing ordeal. The dread of being laughed at because of their clothes, voice or some feature of their body is so intense that they prefer to avoid social gatherings altogether.
Psychologists say that a high proportion of adults with social phobia started taking measures to avoid social situations during their teenage years. Studies have shown that their progressively isolated lifestyles make them more susceptible to developingdepression. Experts emphasize that social phobia is not the same as shyness.
Obese people may develop social anxiety disorder, simply because of their weight.
• Agoraphobia - an individual with agoraphobia is frightened of finding himself/herself in situations where there is no escape; they fear being stuck in a desperate situation with no help. Agoraphobia may include a dread of traveling on buses or trains, going into large shops or shopping malls. When symptoms are severe, the...
...PhobiasPhobias are a very common disorder in the United States these days. The definition for phobia is "an abnormal or morbid fear or aversion" ("Oxford" 655). To be considered a phobia, a fear must cause great distress or interfere with a person’s life in a major way. The word phobia is Greek, therefore, any word that proceeds it should be Greek too. To coin a new phobia name, it is proper and only accepted to follow this rule. The rule has been broken many times in the past, especially by the medical profession. The medical profession is steeped in Latin and many times when forming a name for phobia, they use Latin.
There are three kinds of phobias: simple phobia, social phobia, and panic attacks. Simple phobias, also called specific phobias, are fears of a specific thing, such as spiders or being in a closed place. Most simple phobias develop during childhood and eventually disappear. Specific phobia is a marked fear of a specific object or situation. It is a category for any phobias other than agoraphobia and social phobia. The categories of specific phobias are 1. situational phobias such as: fear of elevators, airplanes, enclosed places, public transportation, tunnels, or bridges; 2. fear of...
...Module 5 Essay
Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy
Word Count 2150
In This essay I shall describe in detail the individual elements, Stress, Anxiety, Habits and Phobias. Firstly I shall describe how these issues manifest within the subconscious, and then I shall address the relationship between the conditions, and how these can come about. Following this I shall discuss the treatment process of my chosen element in more detail (anxiety).
Beginning with Stress. Stress can often over lap with anxiety, but I shall try to describe them individually before divulging into their inter-relations. The dictionary describes stress as “ a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances.” Stress is linked to our ‘fight of flight’ survival instinct; it has been present from our prehistoric ancestors, as a survival technique. This technique created a sense of fear, and arousal in the subconscious to help flea from harm. Nowadays, we face different threats, as modern day survival depends on our placement in society, and the role of hunter-gatherer has been replaced by earning through means of occupation to supply for our families. This modern day way of life has created more complex threat, and a more deep-rooted variety of stresses such as our social standing, job status, high expectations and other modern...
Within this paper Sally a 23 year old woman with a dog phobia will be discussed. Also, how operant and classical conditioning as well as observational learning are a factor in developing Sally’s phobia will be covered. Additionally, how extinction and tenets of cognitive theory can help Sally overcome her dog phobia will be explained.
A phobia is an abnormal, vigorous, unreasonable persistent dread or terror that causes anxiety. “Approximately 40 million American adults ages 18 and older, or about 18.1 percent of people in this age group in a given year, have an anxiety disorder (The National Institute of Mental Health, 2013)”. A person has the capability to make a fear out of anything; dog, open spaces, water, elevators, and tight spaces. Persons with a fears or phobias go to the ends of the earth to avoid any alleged risk that is larger more so in their thoughts than physical time. When confronted with the base of their fear, the person will sustain massive anguish that can hinder everyday tasks; fear can seldom lead to complete panic. Furthermore, for a number of individuals the simple thought of their fear is tremendously upsetting. Fears can be a wearying thing. The defeat of efficiency and productivity at the hands of a person’s phobia can be massive. However, a comprehension of psychology can offer a person the authority to development past...
...Biological explanation of phobias
One biological explanation for the cause of phobic disorders suggests that we can relate it back to our genetics. This theory values the ‘nature’ side in the nature vs nurture debate. This theory uses twin studies to try and separate genetic factors from environmental factors in order to draw a causal conclusion between genetics and phobias. If a closer concordance rate was found between MZ and DZ twins we could suggest a genetic inheritance for the phobia. Kindler predicted a 67% heritability rate for agoraphobia, 59% for blood injury, 51% for social phobia and 47% for animal phobia. This suggests that there are genetic factors which influence the development of a phobic disorder and those with a phobic relative are greater predisposed to develop a phobia.
This theory suggests that phobics may have developed an oversensitive fear response which could explain why they are so anxious in the presence of their feared stimuli, called the adrenergic theory. This can be explained through the functioning of the ANS which controls organs stimulated in arousal, such as the heart. Individuals who inherit abnormally high levels of arousal in the ANS would exhibit higher levels of adrenaline which may result in panic attacks and increased anxiety that the same will happen again when exposed to the feared stimuli. This suggests that individuals...
All kinds of Phobia
Though there are many types of anxiety disorder the most common type of anxiety disorders are phobias. Phobias which means “fear” in Greek, is an excessive fear or anxiety to a situation or object. Phobias, as is all anxiety disorder, can cause heavy interference in maintaining a normal life. Typically one in seven adults will experience some form ofphobia in their lifetime. Though phobias are seen to be of different genres, the experiences of phobias are similar to one another. Phobias can also be a lead way to other types of mental disorders, such as, depression, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. There are three types of phobias, agoraphobia, specific phobia and social phobia. The definition, the typical prognosis, several causations and treatments have been diagnosed and discovered in today’s time, but are continually being reevaluated for further specification.
Agoraphobia is Greek, which in literal translations is “fear of the marketplace.” Agoraphobia is the fear of being in a place where escape or help is not readily available. This term was first used by Westphal in 1871 in order to describe those with anxiety and fear of public places. It was not until the late 1970s that this disorder was widely recognized...
...Some are afraid of heights. It is normal for humans to experience fear. Even animals experience it.
One kind of fear is phobia. It is an intense type of fear. Phobias are improper feeling of fear or anxiety which is triggered because of being exposed to a particular item or situation. Individuals suffering from some kind of phobia have got a great wish to stay away from whatever thing or situation that causes them to feel the fear or anxiety. In this research paper, you will learn more about phobias. Our research paper consists of information and data that will let you understand important facts about phobia. Here, you can learn facts that are interesting and new to you. You can learn what the different types of phobia are, how people acquire these phobias, what are the possible effects of phobia to the ones experiencing it, and what are the treatments and therapies that can be done.
Our research paper is divided into five subtopics that are full of useful information.
Significance of the Study
We made this research paper to give the readers more knowledge about the topic, phobias. This will help them understand and learn everything they need to know about phobias. This includes its definition, kinds, causes and effects, and treatments. The following information will be very useful especially to those who are or have close...
...Dog Phobia Case Study
University of Phoenix
Psych /504 Personality Theories
February 4, 2013
Dog Phobia Case Study
A phobia is an “irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid the subject of the phobia” (Ankrom, 2009 pg.325). Phobias are a type of anxiety disorder that may leave an individual with a strong irrational fear of something that poses very little or no danger to the individual. Phobias, to the individual may cause physical symptoms such as panic, fear, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, trembling, or a strong desire to avoid a specific situation or object altogether. To the individual affected by a phobia, his or her fear is not only rational but also very real. Overcoming a phobia can be a lifelong process in identifying the true nature of the phobia, finding the origins of the phobia, and possible extinction of the specific phobia. Regardless how a phobia is acquired the individual suffering with this type of anxiety disorder identifies the phobia as real and at times can become debilitating.
In this case study of Sally, the topics of operant and classical conditioning and observational behavior are explored as it pertains to the case of Sally and her fear of dogs. In addition, this paper will...
Phobias aren't just extreme fears. They are irrational fears of a particular thing. For instance, you may be able to ski the world's tallest mountains with ease but be unable to go above the 5th floor of an office building. (NIMH, 1995) Even though adults with phobias realize that these fears are irrational, they often find that facing or even thinking about the feared object or situation brings on a panic attack or severe anxiety. Affecting an estimated 6.3 million adult Americans(Lefton, L. A., 1997), phobias are twice as common in women as in men. The causes of specific phobias are not well understood, though there is some evidence that these phobias may run in families. Specific phobias usually first appear during childhood or adolescence and tend to persist into adulthood.
Definition of Disorder
By definition, phobias are "irrational fears," that interfere with one's everyday life or daily routine. If your fear of high places prevents you from crossing necessary bridges to get to work, that fear is irrational. If your fears keep you from enjoying life or even preoccupy your thinking so that you're unable to work, sleep or do things you wish to do, then it becomes irrational.A phobia is something a person fears to the point that they feel they have to change how they behave.(Lefton, L. A., 1997)
The Wikipedia encyclopedia gave this as a...