A/53/243 Fifty-Third Session
Agenda Item 31
Culture of Peace
| Culture of PeaceADeclaration on a Culture of Peace| |
The General Assembly,
Recalling the Charter of the United Nations including the purposes and principles contained therein, Recalling the constitution of the UNESCO which states that 'since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed', Recalling also the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other relevant international instruments of the United Nations system, Recognizing that peace is not only the absence of conflict, but requires a positive, dynamic participatory process where dialogue is encouraged and conflicts are solved in a spirit of mutual understanding and cooperation, Recognizing also that the end of the cold war has widened possibilities for strengthening a culture of peace, Expressing deep concern about the persistence and proliferation of violence and conflict in various parts of the world, Recognizing further the need to eliminate all forms of discrimination and intolerance, including those based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status, Recalling its resolution 52/15 proclaiming the year 2000 the 'International Year for the Culture of Peace' and its resolution 53/25 proclaiming the period 2001-2010 as the 'International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World', Recognizing the important role UNESCO continues to play in the promotion of a culture of peace, 1. Solemnly proclaims this Declaration on a Culture of Peace to the end that governments, international organizations and civil society may be guided in their activity by its provisions to promote and strengthen a culture of peace in the new millennium. Article 1: A culture of peace is a set of values, attitudes, traditions and modes of behaviour and ways of life based on: * Respect for life, ending of violence and promotion and practice of non-violence through education, dialogue and cooperation; * Full respect for the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of States and non-intervention in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any State, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and international law; * Full Respect for and promotion of all human rights and fundamental freedoms; * Commitment to peaceful settlement of conflicts;
* Efforts to meet the developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations; * Respect for and promotion of the right to development;
* Respect for and promotion of equal rights of and opportunities for women and men; * Respect for and promotion of the rights of everyone to freedom of expression, opinion and information; * Adherence to the principles of freedom, justice, democracy, tolerance, solidarity, cooperation, pluralism, cultural diversity, dialogue and understanding at all levels of society and among nations; and fostered by an enabling national and international environment conducive to peace; Article 2: Progress in the fuller development of a culture of peace comes about through values, attitudes, modes of behaviour and ways of life conducive to the promotion of peace among individuals, groups and nations; Article 3: The fuller development of a culture of peace is integrally linked to: * Promoting peaceful settlement of conflicts, mutual respect and understanding and international cooperation; * Compliance with international obligations under the Charter of the United Nations and international law; * Promoting democracy, development and universal respect for and observance of all human rights and fundamental freedoms; * Enabling people at all levels to develop skills of dialogue, negotiation, consensus building and peaceful resolution of differences; *...
...The HumanRight of Self-Defense
David B. Kopel,1 Paul Gallant2 & Joanne D. Eisen3 I. INTRODUCTION “Any law, international or municipal, which prohibits recourse to force, is necessarily limited by the right of self-defense.”4 Is there a humanright to defend oneself against a violent attacker? Is there an individual right to arms under international law? Conversely, are governments guilty ofhumanrights violations if they do not enact strict gun control laws? The UnitedNations and some non-governmental organizations have declared that there is no humanright to self-defense or to the possession of defensive arms.5 The UN and allied NGOs further declare that
1. Research Director, Independence Institute, Golden, Colorado; Associate Policy Analyst, Cato Institute, Washington, D.C., http://davekopel.org. Author of The Samurai, the Mountie, and the Cowboy: Should America Adopt the Gun Controls of Other Democracies? (1992). Coauthor of Gun Control and Gun Rights (2002). French, Spanish, and Portuguese translations of national constitutions and of English decisions written in Law French are by Kopel. 2. Senior Fellow, Independence Institute, Golden Colorado. http://independenceinstitute.org. 3. Senior Fellow, Independence Institute, Golden, Colorado. Coauthor (with Kopel and Gallant) of...
...Evaluation of 'HumanRight Commission' and law
Publish Date : 2014-03-18, Publish Time : 00:00, View Count: 3
10 hours ago
The aims of establishment of National HumanRight Commission (NHRC) are to promote and protect humanrights. The core functions of the commission include complaint handling, humanrights education and making recommendations on law reform. An effective commission must has important link between government and civil society, in so far as they help bridge the 'Protection gap' between the rights of individuals and the responsibilities of the state.
Commission should also be empowered to take action on violations of other rights particularly social, cultural and economic rights. It should work to combat impunity for all those who order, carry out, and cover up humanrights violations. Violations of the right to life and the right to physical and mental integrity frequently involve crimes under international law, such as extra-judicial and other unlawful killings, torture, 'disappearance', war crimes and crimes against humanity. It should identify any systematic pattern of humanrights violations, and address the root causes, rather than solely treating each case in isolation.
NHRC should be judged on their results...
...Humanrights can be described as the basic rights and freedoms all people have because they are human beings. In Australia there have been many responses to effectively obtain and enforce humanrights through both Australian and international action. Responses such as the UN, international treaties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations, domestic responses and the structure of the Australian law making system address issues of humanrights. These responses have been effective in responding to issues of humanrights within Australia. Although Australia has been widely successful in protecting and promoting humanrights within its borders it has failed in some ways to best protect and promote these rights.
The main international response to international humanrights issues including that of Australia is the formation of the UN. The UN is concerned with many universal issues including the protection of humanrights. Under the main administrative body the Secretariat is the Office of the High Commissioner for HumanRights (OHCHR).The OHCHR was formed in 1993 by the General Assembly and works to protect and promote the humanrights contained in the Universal Declaration...
...The UnitedNations has played a crucial role in the international system since its beginning. It has been the main place where leaders from around the globe can communicate and work out issues. Its charter is admirable and includes goals, such as “saving future generations from the scourge of war has brought untold sorrow to mankind." The UnitedNations creates rules against violence, issues sanctions, and plays a peacekeeping/diplomatic role by creating ‘space’ between conflicted countries. It also helps countries raise their standard of living, creates jobs, and delivers aid to victims of natural disasters or war. The humanrights and relief programs that the UN has initiated or supported are impressive indeed.
. The purpose of the Committee was two-fold:
1. To study reports submitted every five years by state parties to the conference, and to make general comments on these reports,
2. To serve as the body to which individuals and groups could complain against states regarding the violation of the rights..
Is the HumanRights Committee really a failure? Yes. The following evidence are
The Committee was established, in part, to serve as a forum in which individuals could file complaints against states for humanrights abuses. However,
* In twenty years of existence, the Committee had registered only...
...Earth has experienced in the past century. These thresholds include loss of biodiversity, climate change, a depleting ozone layer, world-wide freshwater and chemical pollution. Unfortunately, the planet has already passed two of these, including loss of biodiversity and climate change due to our damaging activities that cause environmental disparities.
Until recently, the ecological crisis and its subsequent effects have been discussed mainly in the scientific disciplines as merely an environmental issue. It has also been made into an economic concern. However, it is now more than ever in the 21st century being debated and referred to as a subject for humanrights. This essay seeks to examine the issue of the impact of the ecological crisis, its humanrights implications, and how it has come to be considered the humanrights concern of the century.
The Ecological Crisis
The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st has seen a remarkable increase in the number of environmental catastrophes that the Earth has experienced. These disasters have not been just limited to one geographic region but they have affected nearly every single part of the planet. Some have included climate change, which in turn has been affected by the greenhouse effect and gases ; the advent of peak oil; loss of biodiversity and therefore diminished quantities and quality of food supplies; plus...
...Problems in implementing UN Framework on Business and HumanRights in Indian Organizations
The three pillars of the UN Framework on Business and HumanRights
* The state duty to protect against humanrights abuses by third parties, including business, through appropriate policies, regulation, and adjudication;
* The corporate responsibility to respect humanrights, that is, to act with due diligence to avoid infringing on the rights of others and address adverse impacts with which they are involved; and
* The need for greater access by victims to effective remedy, both judicial and non-judicial.
The Guiding Principles spell out the implications of the three pillars of the UN Framework for governments, businesses and other stakeholders. They are applicable to all governments and to all businesses in all situations. The Guiding Principles are based on extensive research and consultations with representatives from governments, business, civil society organizations, and legal and academic experts across all continents, and gained broad acceptance and support even before their adoption by the HumanRights Council.
The Guiding Principles establish an authoritative global standard on the respective roles of businesses and governments in helping ensure that companies respect human...
...Humanrights/ hsc legal studies
Definition of humanrights:
In general sense humanrights refer to a collection of basic rights of freedoms, believed to belong justifiably to all human beings.
They are considered to be universal, in alienable and inherit to all people
Cases: the Syrian revolution: this case shows humanrights in terms of violating the essential rights, as the war started when al asaads forces cracked down on civilians demanding more freedoms and government reform, with alasaad trying to defend his rule against rebels. (ALSO USED IN STATE SOVERGINTY)
Developing recognition of humanrights
1) The abolition of slavery:
In ancient world slavery was widely practiced. The romans referred to the slave as the tool those talks. Human beings therefore were treated as things or commodities to be bought and sold. From the time of the European colonial expansion from the 16th century native peoples were enslaved and Africans were abducted to work in the Americans.
In the United States the southern states depended on slave labor and these states were opposed to abolishing slavery. At the end of the American civil war the victorious north abolished slavery through the 13th amendment to the constitution of the United States, 89 years...
The Role of UnitedNations in Peace Movement
Date of submission: April 13, 2010
Types of peace movement
Transformations of peace movement
Objectives ofpeace movement
Systems of UnitedNations
Purposes and principles of UnitedNations
Characteristics of UN peace movement:
Dissimilarity of UN peace movement from others organization:
Role of UnitedNations in peace movement
UN approaches to preventing and managing conflicts
Role of Security Council in peace movement:
Economic and Social Council
Humanrights and humanitarian assistance:
A common framework of action
UN and peace making
UN and peace keeping
UN and peace building
Current UN peacekeeping missions
The UnitedNationsPeace building Fund (PBF)
The Other UN...