PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN FATA:
Manzoor Ahmad Naazer*
Peace and harmony in FATA is essential for peace, progress and prosperity in Pakistan and Afghanistan. FATA is an area the hit by violence the worst in both countries. Allegedly, it is an epicenter of militancy and cause of sufferings of people in both countries. In turn, it also increases miseries of the people living in FATA caused by heightened search and security operations by Pakistani forces besides drone strikes and other attacks from across the border. The prevailing situation in FATA warrants an in-depth analysis of the problem. The present researcher intends to explore the root causes of the problem and to suggest remedial measures. The study has been divided into five parts: the first part contains a brief introduction of FATA; the second and third part consists of a survey of the underlying and proximate causes of militancy in FATA, respectively; fourth part includes some recommendations / policy guidelines, and; fifth part is the concluding one. I
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), consisting of 7 agencies and 6 Tribal Regions, covers an area of 27220 sq. km inhabited by 3.15 million people. FATA was one of the most peaceful areas of the country till the dawn of the 21st century when the situation took a new turn in the history of the area. After 9/11, Pakistani policies created strong resentment among the people of the area which ultimately led to the rise of militancy. The ongoing insurgency has so far taken lives of over 50,000 people in Pakistan besides costing a loss of more than $ 100 billion since 2001.
* The author is a Ph. D. scholar and also works as Research Associate at the Department of Politics & International Relations, Faculty of Social Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad.
There are several underlying and proximate causes of the ongoing problem in FATA. The UNDERLING CAUSES include: a. Political, Administrative and Legal Vacuum
Due to FATA’s autonomous status since its accession to Pakistan, the government did not interfere with the liberties of its people whose lives are governed more under local traditions than the ordinary law of the country. There existed no political parties, principle of direct election and universal adult franchise and related political process till recently which created political vacuum in the area. Administratively, the government relied on tribal Maliks and staff of Khasadar force who were incapable of meeting any serious challenge such as posed by the militants. The notorious Frontier Crimes Regulations (FCR) is a decades old system and cannot provide justice in its true sense to the local people. The prevailing political, administrative and legal vacuum provided a fertile ground for nourishment of insurgents on different pretexts. The militants filled this vacuum without any effective check from the government. They established their own courts, which they claimed, provided the people free and speedy justice according to the Shariah Law. They also promised people to liberate them from the clutches and cruelties of Maliks. Thus, the militants were able to get sympathies and support of the local people and to establish their authority in the area. b. Illiteracy, Unemployment and Underdevelopment
Illiteracy, unemployment and underdevelopment are the hallmarks of FATA which the militants successfully used for advancement of their political agenda. The insurgents misguided the illiterate and less educated people, exploited deprivations of the common man and used unemployed youth for anti-state activities in the area and beyond.
c. Legacy of the Past Policies
The successive governments used FATA as sanctuary of local and foreign militants during the Afghan war without anticipating its adverse effects in the future. No body expected that the holy warriors, who were fighting for the glory of Islam and enforcement of Shariah...
Managing and Resolving Conflict in a Positive Way
Conflict is a normal, and even healthy, part of relationships. After all, two people can’t be
expected to agree on everything at all times. Since relationship conflicts are inevitable, learning
to deal with them in a healthy way is crucial. When conflict is mismanaged, it can harm the
relationship. But when handled in a respectful and positive way, conflict provides an
opportunity for growth, ultimately strengthening the bond between two people. By learning the
skills you need for successful conflictresolution, you can keep your personal and professional
relationships strong and growing.
The fundamentals of conflictresolutionConflict arises from differences. It occurs whenever people disagree over their values,
motivations, perceptions, ideas, or desires. Sometimes these differences look trivial, but when a
conflict triggers strong feelings, a deep personal and relational need is at the core of the
problem—a need to feel safe and secure, a need to feel respected and valued, or a need for
greater closeness and intimacy.
Recognizing and resolving conflicting needs
If you are out of touch with your feelings or so stressed that you can only pay attention to a ...
...Running head: Appraising 20 years of reconciliation-aimed encounters
Does contact work in protracted asymmetrical conflict? Appraising 20 of reconciliation-aimed encounters between Israeli Jews and Palestinians
Department of Communication and Journalism
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Reference: Journal of Peace Research, Revised and Resubmitted
In the past few decades, planned contact interventions between groups inconflict have played an important role in attempts at improving intergroup relations and achieving peace and reconciliation. This article focuses on such reconciliation-aimed intergroup encounters between Israeli Jews and Palestinians that seek to reduce hostility and increase understanding and cooperation between the two nationalities. Like other contact interventions conducted in settings of intergroup conflict, encounters between Israeli Jews and Palestinians represent a paradoxical project: this is a project that aspires to generate equality and cooperation between groups that are embedded in a protracted, asymmetrical conflict. Though existing research teaches us valuable lessons on the effectiveness of contact conducted under optimal conditions, little is said about contact between groups involved in asymmetrical protracted dispute. The goal of this analysis is to examine the evolution of reconciliation-aimed contact...
...in the mid 20th century, replacing the terminology of "races" or "nations" used for the concept in the 19th century.
1.3 ETHNIC CONFLICT IN AFRICA
An ethnic conflict or ethnic war is an armed conflict between ethnic groups among African countries.. It contrasts with civil war on one hand (where a single nation or ethnic group is fighting among itself) and regular warfare on the other, where two or more sovereign states (which may or may not be nation states) are in conflict.
Examples of ethnic wars since the 1990s were typically caused by secessionist movements leading to the breakup of multi-ethnic states along ethnic lines: the Yugoslav Wars, the First Chechen War, the Nagorno-Karabakh War, the Rwandan Civil War and the War in Darfur, among others.
CAUSES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT IN AFRICA
2.1 Economic Factors
Economic factors have been identified as one of the major causes of conflict in Africa. Theorists believe that competition for scarce resources is a common factor in almost all ethnic conflicts in Africa. In multi-ethnic societies like Nigeria and South Africa, ethnic communities violently compete for property, rights, jobs, education, language, social amenities and good health care facilities. In his study, Okwudiba Nnoli (1980) produced empirical examples linking socio-economic factors to ethnic conflict in...
Although individuals working in a team may share differences of opinion and ideas, anticipated or unanticipated problems can be resolved through conflictresolution.
According to Austin E. Grigg (2004), “conflict, in theories of personality, is usually considered a state of discomfort or stress caused by an individual's experiencing two or more desires or needs that are incompatible” (¶ 1).Conflict, while uncomfortable and unavoidable, can bring positive results in a team environment. Often times the best result come from a conflict where individuals are able to voice their opinions and make an argument on what direction they would like to see a learning team go. This allows individuals to give their information and take in another’s information. Based on a group decision, all materials are deciphered and the best chosen for a group. “Constructive group conflict has many positive outcomes. Issues and people are better understood through an open exchange. The quality of decision making improves as opposing viewpoints and concerns are discussed. Expressing differences constructively
can make a group discussion more interesting and promote participation.” (documentation learning kit)
People in a learning group need to understand that arguing statements do not necessarily mean negative conflict. If you have a group that...
Leaders must learn how to deal with issues that may arise among their followers. Some of these issues may consist of the leader managing conflicts, handling communication challenges among team members, or addressing organizational communication needs. The communication process is important step for the transfer and understanding of meaning between individuals when working toward a goal together (Robbins & Judge, 2013). With the correct style of communication utilized leaders can help to avoid conflicts among groups.
How would you react when a team member is being vague and trying to spin bad news to sound more positive, thereby making it harder for the team to actually approach and resolve the issue?
Communication is an essential tool for the group’s success when working together as a team. When a team member chooses to be evasive or sugar coat issues or problems with a project can result in a missed deadline or complete failure depending on how bad the problem is. If a problem arises, the best thing to do is discuss it with the entire team as soon as possible to allow time to address the issue and come up with an alternative plan.
How could you encourage someone to continue to voice his or her opinion or to share an idea when you know he or she is hesitant to do so?
For someone who is hesitant to share his or her opinion or idea, leaders should encourage their...
...ConflictResolution - Winning With Difficult People - Personality Styles - DISC Why are some people, be they friends, clients, family or co-workers, so difficult to deal with? How can I talk to them without getting mad? What, if anything, did I do to create a tense situation and cause them to lose control? The reality is we all have difficult people in our lives. Professionally, they are clients or colleagues, or our boss. Personally, they can be people we live with or gave birth to! People become difficult for a variety of reasons – some of them justifiable. Perhaps their needs are not being met, or they have experienced poor communication or service. Perhaps the culprit is the lack of authority to deal with the problem, and they resent having to always defer to someone else. Some people are quick to anger and take their frustrations out on the nearest person they perceive as lower in status than themselves. And, we let them. Worse yet, we react negatively by taking their anger personally. We get angry right back at them, and "fire the client" by being difficult ourselves. In other words, we have successfully become the problem. There are two primary types of conflict. One is performance-based. This type of situation is caused when a person's work performance -- whether it's an issue of quantity or quality -- is not meeting expectations. It creates stress and problems for everyone. The...
To prepare questions and answers for
The Understanding ConflictResolution Workbook
This paper has been prepared for Laura Kavanagh
Lecturer of Psychology
By Jai Acharya
Course title Understanding ConflictResolution.
Q1. What do you understand by the term conflict?
Defined by the oxford dictionary conflict is a term, which is to be in a state of opposition
Or a clashing of opposed interests.
The notes in the conflictresolution workbook it states” conflict is a difference in opinion between two or more persons or groups that causes each to influence a situation affecting all parties concerned .
Q2. Describe reasons for conflict and what happens if the conflict is left unresolved.
Conflict often occurs when two or more parties cannot negotiate on a certain practice for example in the workplace you have employee A which is fast working employee whereas employee B works at a more reduced pace as employee A finishes their work faster they enjoy the comfort of extra breaks or even be given time to go home earlier.
Employee A will argue that employee B is receiving preferential treatment and therefore conflict would arise.
If this conflict demonstrated above remains unresolved resentment, communication...
The Role of International Community
Professor IJI Tetsuro
Due-date: January 28th – January 30th
What roles can the international community play in terminating violent conflicts in today’s world? Please discuss various approaches to the prevention, management and resolution of such conflicts, focusing on what kinds of opportunities and problems external actors might encounter in their interventions. Also where appropriate, it would be helpful to illustrate your discussion of actual conflicts of your choice.
International community is an international relation that applies to all governments, culture, and people. It is a phrase to imply liabilities and responsibilities among governments, civilians, cultures, etc. In order to keep, build, and make these duties, there are few organizations such as United Nations, Non-Governmental Organization, Inter-Governmental Organization, NATO, APEC, ASEAN, and so on. Most of these organizations are related to economic areas in communal society’s common duties. From these organizations, United Nations is most related organization to violent conflicts in today’s world which is called UNPKO (United Nations Peace-Keeping Organization). United Nations’ job is to cooperate in many areas between countries and to cooperate for achievement of world...