The events of September 11 impacted international polices and the regional situation within Pakistan necessitated change to its internal policies. Pakistan found that it had no risk-free options: all polices were full of danger and risk of varying degrees. The test was to adopt such a policy and course of action that could minimize the risk and offered the best possible option in the given circumstances. Geo-strategic location of Pakistan and links with Taliban administration absolved Pakistan to remain unaffected immediately after the attack. Moreover Pakistan was among the three countries, which recognized the Taliban government. Any effort of US and World coalition against Taliban could not have been succeeded without active cooperation of Pakistan. After declaring Al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden as a prime suspect U.S. President George W. Bush said, :"Every nation in every region now has a decision to make. Either you are with us or with the terrorists." The Taliban were asked to hand over Osama and close down bases of his Al-Qaeda network or face the consequences. The rest of the world was told that there could not be any neutral party in the war against terrorism. Pakistan, due to its strategic importance and close relation with the Taliban regime, was asked to cooperate. Military President Pervez Musharraf, was told to either abandon the support of Taliban or be prepared to be treated like the Taliban. The military government, due to Pakistan’s compulsions or concerns, Pakistan security and stability from external threat, the revival of economy, its nuclear and missile assets and Kashmir cause decided to join US led coalition on war against terrorism. So once again, under another military ruler, Pakistan became front line state.
Pakistan’s geographical location played a vital role in the Global War on Terror (GWoT). Its proximity with the Afghanistan brought Pakistan on the limelight. Unites States had chosen Pakistan for logistics, intelligence support, bases for operations in Afghanistan. Pakistan provided its all out support to the coalition forces against the Taliban regime. Pakistan proved to be pivotal for the United States in war against terrorism. In theory “Pivotal States are those countries which have potential influence significant or harmful effects on their regions.” Pakistan has all the ingredients to influence its regional neighbors. It shares long borders with major players like India, Afghanistan, Iran and China. Its nuclear capability had brought Pakistan into attention and post 9/11 era again increased the importance of Pakistan. Ex-president Musharraf called upon a meeting after the 9/11 attacks, with his Generals and key civilian leaders in which he said “US will react like a wounded bear and it will attack Afghanistan”. Musharraf had predicted the looming threat to the existence of Taliban regime and he decided to support United States of America without any hesitation. After the attacks US made several Demands to Pakistan, these were… “over flight rights, access to Pakistani air, naval, and lands bases, crush the domestic elements who are in support of terrorism against Americans and its allies, end every logistic and diplomatic support to Taliban.” Pakistan accepted all these above demands without any vacillation. President George Bush howls then that “it looks like you got it all.” Pakistan’s support was crucial for the United States in every manner. Pakistan provided logistics and its air bases to support the attack against Afghanistan. Despite local resentment ex-president Musharraf pursued his policy on American terms and conditions, which later proven to be disastrous for the Pakistan’s own security. Today US is suffering huge losses in Afghanistan. It is unable to counter insurgency in Afghanistan which has been spilled over to Pakistani tribal areas and now it has threatened the core existence of Pakistan. Today its 2009 and there is no end to this war....
...independence America has fought twelve major wars which have cause a lot of damage to the worls and loss of uncountable human life. It is the policy of America to treat those people as terrorist that can pose a threat to the dominating power of USA. There are recent example behind the world that what America has done with Iraq, Afghanistan and then Pakistan. The United States uses the excuse of defending world peace as a reason to go to war. In hindsight, it can be deduced that all the major wars fought by the United States in the last one hundred years have involved some sort of trickery on the part of the United States to go to war. It is more than a coincidence that before every major war, there has been some sort of incident undermining the United States. The United States responded by retaliating against the provocative state and went to war. While the U.S may not be the instigator of peace there are numerous actions by the U.S that has increased terrorism. These actions include America’s role in the Iran Iraq war of the 80s, the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq and the increasing drone attacks and terrorism in Pakistan.
The war between Iraq and Iran was one of the great human tragedies of recent...
...Entangled Pakistan and War on Terror
At eight forty-six Flight eleven crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Centre (Board). Sixteen minutes later Flight number, one seventy-five, impacted the South Tower (Board, George Washington University). American Airlines Flight seventy-seven dropped on the Pentagon at nine thirty-seven (Board, George Washington University ). On eleventh September 2001 two thousand nine hundred and seventy seven people died (Glazier). It marked the worst terrorist attack in the American history. The United States economy froze while the world still stood in shock. In those dramatic moments on twelfth September 2001, President George W Bush addressed the nation and declared America’s War on Terrorism (US declares War on Terror). What followed was a global campaign by American and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) troops against Taliban, who controlled Afghanistan and Al-Qaeda, the master mind behind the nine-elven plot. The military campaign was named “Operation Enduring Freedom”. The leader of Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden was the key target of the United States. When the Afghan government refused to hand over, USA decided to invade Afghanistan (Channel).
On twenty-second September 2006, President Parvez Musharraf confided that United States threatened Pakistan. In an interview, Musharraf said "The intelligence director told me that...
...War on terrorism, is that right strategy?
Table of Contents
War on terrorism’ what is that
Budget on war on terror
Since September 11, the world has been changed. It did not a matter for just Americans, but also it became a matter to the world. American government announced a War on terrorism and its allies engaged in that plan. After 7 years, they still fight against terrorism but now we do not know what the war on terrorism and what that is for. Every single time when we watching TV, most victims are American or its allies’ soldier or citizen of Afghanistan or Iraq. Terrorists still are out of the surrounding area and they are planning another attack. I’ll look for the way of how we are going to plan for fight against terrorists and effectiveness of war on terror to explore whether it is working or not. And it needs to be defined why the world choose ‘war on terror’ option as a counterterrorism from several options. There have been huge incidents happened by terrorist but most of them were very small damaged to the public. They can choose another options such as hiring more police officers or spend more money on the analyze them. I will explore what impact ‘war on terrorism’ has brought to...
...The War on Terror
Afghanistan and Iraq
• To understand the concept of the ‘War on Terror’.
• To analyse speeches given by former President Bush and Prime
• To evaluate America role in the post-Cold War era.
Who is America’s Enemy?
• By yourself, create a list of nations you think are considered enemies
of the United States of America in the post-Cold War era (1991-2004).
Who are terrorists?
• In pairs/small groups draw your idea of what a terrorist looks like.
• British Soldiers shot 26 unarmed Irish civilians in 1972 during a
protest. 14 were killed.
• The IRA (Irish Republican Army) bombed numerous locations across
the British Isles for the best part of the 1970s and 1980s.
• Crimes committed against Irish citizens.
• Ku Klux Klan have committed countless acts of terrorist activities
against minorities in America.
• In pairs, discuss those two speeches
• What did you think of them?
• Was there anything you disagreed/agreed with?
So what is the War on Terror?
• It relates to the international military campaigns that occur after 11
September 2001 terrorist attacks.
• Spearheaded by the United States it also included both NATO and
non-NATO nations in actions to destroy al-Qaeda and other militant
...War Against Terror
The September 11 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks on the United States changed the perspective of the world towards terrorism especially the Al Qaeda. The world, in particular the major powers came to realize that the greatest threat they had in the 21st centaury was global terrorism and President Bush once said, “Al Qaeda is to terror what the Mafia is to crime” (George Bush, 2001,p.2). Just few days after September 11 2001, President Bush delivered a speech in which he declared that America was at war, a war to “find stop and defeat” every terror group of global reach (George Bush, 2001, p.5).
On October 7 2001, the USA and UK launched a joint attack on Afghanistan, to overthrow the oppressive Taliban government and to destroy the Al Qaeda’s stronghold in the nation, and by 2011, 49 nations, including Australia had sent more than 140,000 soldiers into Afghanistan (Rogers Simon and Lisa Evans, 2009). The second phase of the ‘War on Terror” took the USA and its allies to Iraq, where they had suspected the Saddam Hussein led government was creating weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and was cooperating with the Al Qaeda to launch attacks on USA and its allies. On March 20 2003, the USA, UK and their allies launched an invasion of Iraq without the consent of the UN (Ewen MacAskill, and Julian Borger, 2004). The invasion eventually led...
...THIS IS OUR WAR!
“We must not harbour any doubts, it is Pakistan’s war”, says Gen. Kayani
It is our history that whenever is finally united on something, a propaganda is produced to create confusion. Ever since the restoration of democratic system in Pakistan, a debate has been started on the topic that “Is war on terror our war or not?” The whole nation was supporting the Pakistan army until our beloved political parties like Pakistan Muslim League (N), Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf, Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F) and Jamaat-e-Islami decided to come up with mix-up statements like “This is America’s war” or “We were forced into joining this war”. These parties act like the political wing of Tehreek-e-Taliban and are constantly trying to manipulate the minds of people by forcing them to believe that if Pakistan stops supporting USA and NATO Forces in this war against terror, the lives of the innocent Pakistani people will be saved and there will be no more bombings and killings in the country. If people really believe that this is not our war and peace will find its way back into the country once we withdraw from it then they are the biggest fools.
Patricia Briggs said in Dragon Bones, “Stupidity will kill you more surely than your opponent's blade”
I am afraid the future...
...War on terror refers to the ongoing military campaign led by U.S and U.K against organizations identified as terrorists. Terrorism can be defined as an unlawful violence or war deliberately targeted to civilians. It can also be defined as a systematic use of terror to coerce or violent acts intended to create fear. This threat is normally perpetrated for religious, political or ideological goals. The conflict as also called by other names. They include World War III, The Long War, War on Terrorism, Bush’s War on Terror, The Global War of Terror and War on Al-Qaeda, (Coaty, 2010).
Terrorism became popular in 1996 when Al- Qaeda network was formed by the late Osama Bin Laden. The network was formed by the World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and their Crusaders. They declared war on the West and Israel. Immediately after its formation, there were bombings in U.S embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998. Osama then plotted for the 2000 millennium attacks. There was an attempt to bomb Los Angeles International Airport but it was stopped. In October 2000, USS Cole bombing occurred. This was immediately followed by the renowned September 11 2001 terror attack. This marked the genesis of war on terror.
The essay explores on the topic...
Cost of War on Terror for Pakistan Economy
The conclusion was that the War not only caused serious damage to the economy, but also to the social fabrics of Pakistan. Obviously, continuity of War will continue to bleed the economy and society of Pakistan. At the start of the War, the cost of it to Pakistan was estimated at $ 2.669 billion in fiscal year 2001-02. This calculation was based on the assumptions that: (i) The War in Afghanistan that begun on October 7, 2001 will end swiftly by December 2001: (ii) normalcy will resume from January 2002; (iii) the Taliban government will be ousted and some low intensity fight will continue but life in Pakistan will remain normal; and (iv) the additional increase in freight cargo and war risk premium will be removed. The abovementioned assumptions were not materialized and instead the war on terror continued to gain momentum and became more precarious for the entire region in general and Pakistan in particular as it shifted to its settled areas to disrupt all kind of investment and economic activity. Pakistan became more insecure in its efforts to make the world a safer place to live. Pakistan continued to pay a heavy price in terms of both the economic and security terms. A...