Oparin and Haldane’s Theory:
The chemical evolution of life is the most widely accepted theory of origin of life. It is based on the fact that primitive earth was different from the earth which is present today. It was proposed by Russian bio-chemist, A.I Oparin (1923) and was supported by Englishman J.B.S Haldane (1928). This theory can be well-explained under the following headings: i.Biogeny
1.Formation of the earth:
i.When the earth was formed, it was extremely hot with temperature of 5000 centigrades. Everything in the atmosphere was in molten state. ii.Gradually, the constituents of the earth cooled down and formed primitive atmosphere. 2.Formation of simple molecules:
i.Even after the formation of the earth, there existed certain simple molecules like hydrogen, nitrogen, etc. ii.These elements were arranged under different strata according to their densities in the atmosphere. iii.Soon, these reactive elements combined to form simple molecules like water, methane, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, etc. iv.These compounds settled in the atmosphere when the earth began to cool and condensation of water occurred to give rise to water cycle. v.These molecules got mixed with the rain water and settled in the water resources formed by the water cycle. 3.Formation of simple organic compounds:
i.The chemical synthesis of the organic compounds was supposed to occur in the warm primeval oceans or primordial soup. ii.The energy for the synthesis of these chemicals were abundantly provided by the UV radiation from the sun as well as the rocks, heat energy from the volcanoes and electric energy from the lightening. iii.Different organic molecules like amino acids, simple sugars and nucleic acid were formed spontaneously from the methane, ammonia and water. iv.Since there were no organisms to consume these compounds and no oxygen for the oxidation of intermediate compounds, the organic compounds slowly accumulated in the...
...JOURNAL ENTRY: WEEK 2
Explain the insights you gained from reflecting on your personal attitudes, beliefs, biases, behavior, and world view and how these factors might impact your delivery of counseling techniques.
The two cultural diversity assessments that I took were Cultural Diversity Self-Assessment (score 138) and Cultural Competence Self-assessment checklist (score 93). By taking both assessments I realized the importance of self-evaluation. Being able to reflect on my own personal progress and development, I will be able to recognize areas in which I have improved as well as areas in which I need improvement. I would begin this progress by comparing a then and now technique as my way of observing my own growth.
In this week’s readings and discussion, I have learned so much about a client’s personal values, beliefs, and world view. Working as a Mental Health Counselor, I’m sure there will be many challenges as well as responsibilities. In week two, I expressed what might be a concern/challenge when working with a client that does not accept accountability. However, being that “I demonstrate and model my values in action with my personal and work behaviors, decision making, contribution, and interpersonal interaction it is my responsibility as a mental health counselor to respect client dignity and promote client welfare. It would be in my best interest, to help my clients to understand that values are made up of everything in their lives...
Individual Counseling Theory Techniques
Adlerian, Cognitive Behavioral and Solution-Focused Brief Therapy are three major
theories that are used extensively in the counseling world. Some counselors use each
as a single treatment approach while others chose to blend things from two or more
together. The theory or approach that is chosen by a counselor must be one that they
are knowledgeable in and feel comfortable with. It’s also important to remember that
not every approach will fit every client.
Adlerian Theory sometimes referred to as Individual Psychology was developed
by Alfred Adler. Adler stressed a positive view of human nature. He believed that
everyone can control their fate through analyzing their lifestyle and helping others. One
of the key concepts of Adlerian Therapy is that “objective reality is less important than
how we interpret reality and the meanings we attach to what we experience.” (Quinn,
2011) Adlerian Theory suggests that behavior is purposeful and goal-oriented and that
the “life goal” unifies the personality. (Quinn, 2011) Genetics and heredity are not as
important as what we chose to do with the limitations and abilities that we possess.
(Quinn, 2011) Adler offered a “value-oriented...
In his 1989 article Mouck cites Morgan (1988) who observed that:
“The idea that accountants represent reality ‘as is ‘ through the means of numbers that are objective and value free, has clouded the much more important insight that accountants are always engaged in interpreting a complex reality, partially, and in a way that is heavily weighted in favor of what the accountant is able to measure and chooses to measure…” (p. 480).
Discuss the extent to which the “scientific” world-view of mainstream accounting researchers, is grounded on a belief that “reality” exists independently of thee human subject and the possible implications this has for accounting theory development.
Accounting is a subject that is guided with principles and regulations. Thus, it is often regarded as a rigid, rigorous, and highly analytical discipline with very precise interpretations. However, this is far from the truth. For instance, two organizations that are otherwise homogeneous can apply different valuation methods giving entirely distinct but equally correct answers. One may argue that a choice between accounting schemes is merely an “accounting construct” the sorts of “games” accountants play that are exclusively of relevance to them but have no pertinent in the “real world.” Once again this is entirely false. For example, valuation of inventory using either LIFO (Last-in-last-out) or FIFO (First-in-first-out) has an impact on income tax,...
...In a broad manner, organisational theories can be defined as formal social organisations and their interrelationship with the environment in which they operate. This reading provides insight into the agency and the contingency organisational theories, and how management implement these theories into the environment in which their business operates. It also outlines the issues and limitations of these theories, using the Coca Cola company as a relevant case study. In addition, this essay examines different stakeholder perspectives in relation to the theories and their issues, and it concluded by focusing on what type of knowledge, capability, and skills a manager requires in order to deal with these specific issues.
Coca Cola was founded during the year 1887, by Doctor John Pemberton, a pharmacist from Atlanta. John established a company which immediately began building its global network, he was known as the man who achieved a “global success through an intelligent risk”. Over the years, the company’s success rate continuously increased, and the deep emotional bond between Coca-Cola and its consumers grew even more powerful and more global (Coca Cola, 2014). In 2014, Coca-Cola advised that the previous year $2.8 billion in stock was purchased, however they had planned to increase that amount to between $3.0 billion and $3.5 billion for the full year, due to positive sales, this is a clear indication...
Anthony Sampson GS1140 Onsite Course
_________________________________________________________________ ITT Technical Institute 877 Executive Center Drive W Suite 100 St. Petersburg, FL 33702
The world we live in at the present time is growing with population every day we all walk out the door. To have thought on what the world will look like or the direction it is going in is over whelming me in thoughts of what will be. Many don’t have a clue to what is going on around us on a given day unless they have the phone in the ear or money is changing hands. I however have thought about what could happen and feel we need to start looking further in the future if we plane on having one. I would consider a colony on another planet to help save humans and generations coming up. I propose this based on the world is getting over populated and are resources are running out.
Global warming is upon us and has bin for over 20 years leading to temperature changes in are atmosphere, cosmic activities are popping up in areas we would not consider activity. I believe if the population continues at this rate we will run are planet dry. The ozone layer that protects us is breaking down each day and feel that one day it will let go...
1. Explain the concept of nature versus nurture, using yourself as a case study to illustrate the theory.
The concept of nature versus nurture is that human behaviour is influenced by genetic information inherited from our parents and also by environmental and social influences.
My appearance such as short sightedness and pigmentation (freckles) I inherited from my parents. This means like my father I must wear glasses to drive and many other aspects of my daily life.
Being a woman this heightens my social awareness as how others perceive me. Society dictates ‘the body beautiful’. Magazines, Bill-boards, TV and newspapers constantly suggest the need to have a perfect complexion. This influences how I perceive myself and makes me feel I must wear makeup to cover up such blemishes to appear more acceptable and feel good about myself. Thus this influences my behaviour in everyday life as I feel my appearance determines my acceptance by others.
2. Identify one strength and one weakness of the nature versus nurture concept in relation to understanding human development and individual behaviour.
One strength of the nature versus nurture concept in relation to understanding human development and individual behaviour is the ability to explain addiction to smoking, drinking and narcotics. Children see their family and friends behaviour as socially acceptable and so exhibit these behaviours with little...
Grand Theory Written Assignment 3.1
A grand theory is a systematic construction for the nature of nursing that has a clear mission and goals for nursing care. There are four categories of schools of thought within the realm of grand theories to include needs theories, interaction theories, outcome theories, and lastly caring/becoming theories. In the following tables I have highlighted a theorist from each school of thought and briefly discussed their educational background, my perception of their definition and philosophy of nursing, and the goal/purpose of their theory.
Needs theorist Faye Abdellah
Faye Abdellah received her nursing education at Fitkin Memorial Hospital School of Nursing, Nepture, N.J. and graduated in 1942. She then went on to study chemistry at Rutgers University prior to receiving her Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, and Doctor of Education degrees from the Teacher’s College of Columbia University, N.Y. Retrieved from http://fayeabdellah.blogspot.com/p/backgroud-publications.html
Philosophy of nursing
According to Meleis, her philosophy of nursing includes the use of problem solving approach to deal with 21 distinct problems related to needs of patients. She described a problem as a condition faced by the patient for which a nurse can assist, overtly and covertly. This is done by preventative...
...publication deadlines only.
B. The article is checked to determine reading level.
C. Peer reviewers complete a standardized review form.
D. Internal review is completed by an editorial advisory board.
E. Anonymous peer review is completed by a minimum of five reviewers.
11. What are three characteristics of nursing theories?
Choose 3 answers
A. They provide strategies for evaluating difficult situations
B. They provide avenues for nurses to meet goals
C. They deal with difficult people and situations
D. They evolve
E. They describe a phenomenon
F. They expand awareness of concepts not considered
12. What are reasons nursing theorists create nursing theories?
Choose 2 answers
A. Further nursing as a scholarly profession
B. Effectively carry out prescribed treatments
C. Organize and improve the delivery of nursing care
D. Prevent hazards to human life
E. Provide psychological support for nursing staff
13. Which of the following criteria is used to determine acceptance of a nursing theory?
Choose 1 answer
A. The theory must be approved by the American Nurses Association (ANA).
B. The theory must predict phenomena.
C. The theory must be supported by the Nurse Practice Act.
D. The theoretical assumptions must stem from nursing history.
14. What is an early nursing theoretical concept supported by Florence Nightingale?
Choose 1 answer
A. The force...