I.A Prophet and His World
A.Muhammad and His Message
1.The Arabian peninsula
a.Nomadic Bedouin lived in the desert-covered peninsula for millennia 1.Kept herds of sheep, goats, and camels
2.Organized in family and clan groups
3.Importance of kinship and loyalty to the clan
b.Post-classical Arabia, active in long-distance trade
c.An important link between India/China and Persia/Byzantium 2.Muhammad's early life
a.Muhammad ibn Abdullah born in a Mecca merchant family, 570 C.E. b.Difficult early life, married a wealthy widow, Khadija, in 595 c.Became a merchant at age 30, exposed to various faiths
3.Muhammad's spiritual transformation
a.At age 40, he experienced visions
1.There was only one true god, Allah ("the god")
2.Allah would soon bring judgment on the world
3.The archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to Muhammad b.Did not intend to found a new religion, but his message became appealing 4.The Quran
a.Followers compiled Muhammad's revelations
b.Quran ("recitation"), became the holy book of Islam
c.A work of magnificent poetry
B.Muhammad's Migration to Medina
1.Conflict at Mecca
a.His teachings offended other believers, especially the ruling elite of Mecca b.Attacks on greed offended wealthy merchants
c.Attacks on idolatry threatened shrines, especially the black rock at Ka'ba 2.The hijra
a.Under persecution, Muhammad and followers fled to Medina, 622 C.E. b.The move, known as hijra, was the starting point of the Islamic calendar 3.The umma
a.Organized a cohesive community called umma in Medina
b.Led commercial adventure, sometimes launched raids against Mecca caravans c.Helped the poor and needy
4.The "seal of the prophets"
a.Referred himself as the "seal of the prophets," - the final prophet of Allah b.Held Hebrew scriptures and New Testament in high esteem
c.Determined to spread Allah's wish to all humankind
C.The Establishment of Islam in Arabia
1.Muhammad's return to Mecca
a.He and his followers conquered Mecca, 630
b.Imposed a government dedicated to Allah
c.Destroyed pagan shrines and built mosques
a.The Ka'ba shrine was not destroyed
b.In 632, Muhammad led the first Islamic pilgrimage to the Ka'ba 3.The Five Pillars of Islam
a.Obligations taught by Muhammad, known as the Five Pillars b.The Five Pillars bound the umma into a cohesive community of faith 4.Islamic law: the sharia
a.Emerged during the centuries after Muhammad
b.Detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life c.Drew inspiration especially from the Quran
d.Through the sharia, Islam became more than a religion, but also a way of life II.The Expansion of Islam
A.The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty
a.Upon Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr served as caliph ("deputy") b.Became head of the state, chief judge, religious leader, military commander 2.The expansion of Islam
a.Between 633-637, seized Byzantine Syria, Palestine, and most of Mesopotamia b.By 640's, conquered Egypt and north Africa
c.In 651, toppled Sasanid dynasty
d.In 711, conquered the Hindu kingdom of Sind
e.Between 711-718, conquered northwest Africa, most of Iberian peninsula 3.The Shia and Sunnis
a.The Shia sect, originally supported Ali, served as a refuge b.The Sunnis ("traditionalists"), accepted legitimacy of early caliphs c.Two sects struggled over succession
4.The Umayyad dynasty (661-750 C.E.)
a.The dynasty temporarily solved problem of succession
b.Established capital city at Damascus in Syria
c.Ruled the dar al-Islam for the interests of Arabian military aristocracy 5.Policy toward conquered peoples
a.Levied jizya (head tax) on those who did not convert to Islam b.Even the converts did not enjoy wealth and position of authority 6.Umayyad decline
a.Caliphs became alienated even from other Arabs from the early 8th century b.By...
The ProphetMuhammad is the founder of Islam. He is known as the Messenger of God to people of the Islamic faith. Muhammad lived a rough life but he also changed people’s lives. His religion has had an effect on millions of people. There are no pictures of Muhammad’s face; he made a point that the religion was to not be about him, but about Allah.
In 570 C.E in Mecca, Arabia a baby boy, a descendant of Abraham named Muhammad, whose name means “highly praised”, was born. Muhammad’s father, Abdullah, died before he was born and his mother, Amina died when he was only six years old. After the death of his mom, he became an orphan. He was taken in by a woman named Halmiah, who became his foster mother. In 595 C.E., Muhammad was contacted by one of his wealthy widowed cousins, Khadijah, who needed him to sell some goods for her. Many of Muhammad’s cousins lived in Mecca, so it was not uncommon that Khadijah had contacted him. He was known for being a very good merchant. Muhammad and Khadijah met several times to discuss the selling of goods. Khadijah began to become interested in him on a personal level, even though she was fifteen years older than Muhammad. Khadijah asked Nufaysah (known as the matchmaker) to ask Muhammad if he was interested in marrying Khadijah. Muhammad and Khadijah...
...In 570 AD a man to be by the Islamic people as the last prophet was born into the world; his name was Muhammad. Muhammad was born into a poor family in Mecca, but spent most of his childhood being raised by Bedouin relatives in a different town after he was orphaned at the age of six. His uncle Abu Talib brought him under his wing and taught him to be a successful merchant. When Muhammad was about twenty years old he moved into Mecca and began trading for widow named Khadijah. Through the next five years Khadijah became aware of how reliable and resourceful Muhammad was and proposed marriage to him when he was twenty-five. Through his travels Muhammad became very aware of the clan rivalries and the undermining forces among the tribes. He soon became distracted and unsatisfied with his life. In 610 he retreated to a cave above Mecca to meditate and fast. While he was there the angel Gabriel appeared to him and gave him a message from God, “There is no god but Allah.”
Muhammad began teaching his revelations form God. His first group of disciples consisted of his wife, his servants, and just a few of his clan’s people. His first followers called themselves Muslims. As he taught his circle grew and he became a threat to other wealthy Meccans, the worshiping of the gods of their fathers, and the sacred Ka’ba. In 622 After severe persecution,...
...History of Civilizations I – Response Paper: Life of Muhammad
The persuasion of the prophetMuhammad was to make sure that everyone believes in the goodness and oneness of Allah, to show everything comes to you from Allah and his gift and point in peoples’ actions. His persuasion was not only existing for people around him; but also; the persuasion was existing for those who believed in the Old or the New Testament who were also in the search of the truth of the God’s covenant.
Water was significant for the Apostle because of the fact that water was indispensable for the purification. The purification was important because it was the beginning of the prayers for Allah. All prayers follows the purifications as the prophetMuhammad followed Allah; people followed the prophetMuhammad. That is why water was significant for the Apostle.
The prophetMuhammad found his first convert was sent by Allah at Hira where every year the apostle of Allah was praying for a month. The convert was “Read” that was told over and over again by Allah until the prophetMuhammad stopped saying “I cannot read it” and asked “What shall I read?” As you can see here, the prophetMuhammad started to follow Allah by asking what he can do for Allah and it was clear that the mission was only depends on the...
...Biography of Muhammad
“O Children of Israel! Surely, I am the messenger of Allah to you, verifying that which is before me of the Torah and giving the good news of a Messenger who will come after me whose name will be Ahmed” (Qur'an, 61:6). This was the prophetic announcement of the coming of the ProphetMuhammad by Jesus Christ. Muhammad was able achieve this status as a prominent leader through his ability to unify the Arab nation while in political power and also as a religious leader, led the nation of Islam to the knowledge of the one true God. Muhammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa salam was one of the most prominent leaders in the Islamic nation, not only in a religious aspect but also on a secular one.
The ProphetMuhammad was born on August 29, 570 C.E. at Mecca. His birthplace is now designated as the origin of the Islamic religion. Muhammad spent his childhood in an orphanage after the death of his father (Kikim). On the return from a pilgrimage to Medina, Muhammad’s mother died when he was only six years old. He was then raised by his grandfather Abd al Muttalib. At the age of eight, his grandfather was killed by Muhammad’s own uncle Abu Talib (Kikim). Muhammad had a very turbulent childhood characterized by living in various homes, which made him the person he became in his later years.
During Muhammad’s adolescent years, there were no laws...
...ProphetMuhammad is the founder of the Islamic faith, and also the messenger of God. He is also known as the greatest prophet.
ProphetMuhammad was born in 570 AD in the city of Mecca in Arabia. He was born into a noble Quraish tribe, but at a young age, he became an orphan, and was raised by his uncle. At around 595 AD, a wealthy widow asked Muhammad to be the manager of her trading supplies to Syria. After Muhammad completed the task, she offered him marriage. Even though she was 15 years older than him, they married and had four daughters.
Muhammad was a very faithful and religious man, and he often meditated in caves in the mountains. He spent time thinking about the problems of Mecca, where religions were unimportant and the environment was unsafe. In the year 610 AD, at the beginning of the month of Ramadan, Muhammad heard a voice that said, You are the messenger of God. Later Muhammad decided that it was the Archangel Gabriel that sent him the message from God. Muhammad found many messages from God during his meditations, and he felt that it was his duty to spread them to everyone.
Then Muhammad began to preach to a few people, at first. At around 612 AD, he started to preach publicly, and he soon gained more followers, especially young men. The leaders of the tribes of Mecca also began to...
The ProphetMuhammad is both the final messenger of God and a role-model for the whole of humanity. He was born in Makkah in 571 C.E. in the tribe of Quraish, a highly respected tribe by the Arabs. He was orphaned and at age six and raised by his uncle Abu Talib, who has helped him a great deal by protecting him and taking care of him until he died. He had married a chaste, widowed woman Khadija when she was 45 years old and he was 25 years old. Many people say that he married her for her wealth, but this is highly unlikely since all of his wives were either widowed or divorced and he did not marry another woman until 3 years after her death. When Muhammad reached the age of 40 years, he had a profound experience that changed his life.
ProphetMuhammad used to meditate in the Cave of Hira, where he would seclude himself for days and nights. One night an angel named Gabriel came to him with divine revelation and told him to recite. He said that he could not recite and this happened a second time. On the third time, he asked “Recite What?”, Gabriel replied “Proclaim! Recite! In the name of your Lord and Cherisher, Who created man, out of a leech-like clot: Proclaim! And your Lord Is Most Bountiful, He who taught (the use of) the Pen, Taught man that which he knew not.”. Muhammad was frightened and he went back to his...
...ProphetMuhammad was a religious, political, and military leader from Mecca who unified Arabia into a single religious polity under Islam. He is believed by Muslims and Baha'is to be a messenger and prophet of God. Muhammad is almost universally considered by Muslims as the last prophet sent by God for mankind.[n 1] Non-Muslims regard Muhammad as the founder of Islam. Muslims consider him to be the restorer of an unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
Born in about 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Being in the habit of periodically retreating to a cave in the surrounding mountains for several nights of seclusion and prayer, he later reported that it was there, at age 40, that he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him is the only way acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets.
Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from...
...proclaimed by Proclaimed by ProphetMuhammad under whose banner the scattered tribes of Arabia became a nation. ProphetMuhammad was born in A.D. 570 at Mecca in Arabia.
From the beginning, Muhammad was absorbed in religion. He would often withdraw and spend days and night at a cave near Mt. Hira close to Mecca. Here he meditated and prayed. One night, as he was alone in the cave the angle Gabriel appeared to him and proclaimed Muhammad to be the messenger of Allah. He bade Muhammad to spread his faith among the people of Arabia.
Muhammad accepted this as a true revelation from heaven and it encouraged him to now announce his mission. He openly announced himself as the prophet of Allah, ‘divinely commissioned to lead the Arab people to a new morality and a monotheistic faith’. Muhammad condemned the worship of many gods and idols, as was then prevalent amongst the Arab tribes. By doing so, he turned the Arabs and also his own tribesmen against himself. He was abused and stoned by them. Some Arabs got together to plan his murder. He took shelter in Medina. His flight to Medina with a group of followers on July 2, A.D. 622 is known as the Hijra and is regarded as the official beginning of the Mohammedan era.
In Medina, Muhammad preached his religion and won many flowers. Muhammad said, “Allah is most...