The threat of natural disasters has been around since the beginnings of the earth. Mankind has never been without the safety concerns and precautions associated with these threats. Yet it seems that in the last one hundred years or so the terroristic threats have become a far greater concern to the U.S. population. If the number of casualties from both threats were compared with each other, the numbers for one would hardly be anywhere near the other. Natural disasters are far more dangerous, yet there are several factors that contribute to the shift in focus towards the terroristic type of attacks.
The first of these would be that terrorist attacks are malicious in nature. That is to say that the purposes of these attacks are to damage, kill, or destroy. Terrorist attacks target specific objects, anything from a person to a political agenda. There is conscious thought behind these attacks and this serves to drive fear into people. People would fear that they may be the next target or be present near the target, therefore becoming a bystander. In general, there are no such conditions for terrorist attacks to occur. Many of the attacks are usually a surprise. They could occur anywhere and at nearly anytime. This unknown factor is incredibly powerful for instituting fear. Due to this instilled fear, terrorist attacks can be successful without having been fully carried out. By contrast natural disasters simply exist with no intent. There is no thought, rational or irrational, to drive the specific type of disaster forward. They simply are caused by different situations, in the often uncontrollable ingredients of the environment. Natural disasters are often uncontrollable from the beginning or after a certain point in the cycle. There are specific situations that must be present for these disasters. So, while there is always a low level of surprise, they can usually be seen before they happen. This leaves less to the imagination, and less to fear. As stated...
...DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
The disaster cycle or the disaster life cycle consists of the steps that emergency managers take in planning for and responding to disasters. Each step in the disaster cycle correlates to part of the ongoing cycle that is emergency management. This disaster cycle is used throughout the emergency management community, from the local to the national and international levels.
The first step of the disaster cycle is usually considered to be preparedness although one could start at any point in the cycle and return to that point before, during, or after a disaster. For the sake of understanding, we will start with preparedness. Prior to a disaster’s occurrence, emergency manager will plan for various disasters which could strike within the area of responsibility. For instance, a typical city located along a river would need to plan for not only flooding but also hazardous material accidents, large fires, extreme weather (perhaps tornadoes, hurricanes, and/or snowstorms), geologic hazards (perhaps earthquakes, tsunamis, and/or volcanoes), and other applicable hazards. The emergency manager learns about past disasters and current potential hazards and then begins to collaborate with other officials to write a disaster plan for the jurisdiction with appendices for specific hazards or...
...What are NaturalDisasters?
The World is always changing.
Naturaldisasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living things.Great changes happen deep inside the Earth and on its surface. The changes on the outer part of the Earth happen because of different kinds of weather.
What are NaturalDisasters?
• Volcanic eruption
• Cyclone or Hurricane
• Forest fire or Bushfire
A volcanic eruption is the spurting out of gases and hot lava from an opening in the Earth’s crust.
Pressure from deep inside the Earth forces ash, gas and molten rock to the surface.
An earthquake is a violent shaking of the ground. Sometimes it is so strong that the ground splits apart.
When parts of the earth, called plates, move against each other giant shock waves move upwards towards the surface causing the earthquake.
Effects of Earthquakes
Earthquakes produce various damaging effects to the areas they act upon. This includes damage to buildings and in worst cases the loss of human life. The effects of the rumbling produced by earthquakes usually leads to the destruction of structures such as buildings, bridges, and dams. They can also trigger landslides.Besides producing floods and destroying...
Ryan M. Faught
Arkansas Tech University
Terrorism has been a major topic of research for many years. We’ve learned a lot about terrorism and terrorist groups, but there are still major questions to be answered. What exactly is a terrorist? What causes ordinary people to become terrorists? What attracts people to terrorism? How do terrorist groups in the Middle East recruit and radicalize people from all over the world? In this paper I will discuss these questions and more according to the knowledge I’ve gained from reading these five research papers.
Terrorism is the use, or threat, of action which is violent, damaging or disrupting and is intended to influence the government or intimidate the public and is for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause (De Zulueta, 2006). This or any definition of terrorism is still subjective depending on the “terrorist” and the situation. For instance, most Americans don’t consider the founding fathers as terrorists, but freedom fighters. In the same way, radical Muslims may look at al Qaeda as freedom fighters, although most of the world would view them as terrorists. The deciding factor that separates freedom fighters from terrorists appears to be the intentional murder of innocent people. Terrorist groups, such as al Qaeda are well known for such murders. Rather than merely fighting for freedom, they wish to create a...
A naturaldisaster is a major adverse event, which can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage. There are many types of naturaldisasters: avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, tsunamis, blizzards, droughts, hailstorms, tornadoes, wildfires. If an adverse event occurs in an area without vulnerable population, it will not have such disastrous consequences, as if it occurs in area of vulnerable population as in San Francisco.
One of the biggest naturaldisasters, which appear mostly in mountainous area, is avalanche. An avalanche occurs when a mass of snow falls down from the mountainside. That is because new snow, which is not wet, falls on a more heavy snow layer. This causes that the layer of snow is too big and it start to slide down toward the base of mountain. One of the biggest avalanches in world history was in Italian - Austrian Alps. During World War II, Italy and Austria had military bases in the Alps – soon finding that bombs and enemy fire weren't the only threats. Heavy snow instigated a series of avalanches in the Tyrol region causing the deaths of 10,000 soldiers on what became known as White Friday 1916.
Of course one of the naturaldisasters is an earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor). Earthquake is the result of a sudden...
Psychological Consequences of Earthquakes
Naturaldisasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes and cyclones, floods, and tornadoes are some of the traumatic experiences that may cause posttraumatic stress disorders. This type of disorders and other disaster related psychological problems are prevalent after naturaldisasters. As a result it is important to analyse those individuals that develop psychological problems especially to prepare and plan interventions both in the short and long term after disaster (Coşkun, Coşkun, 2000, p: 68). Earthquakes have quickly become one of the most highlighted naturaldisasters. Unlike other naturaldisasters, earthquakes occur without warning, the impact is widespread and severe, and the effects often persist long after (Chen et al., 2007). Earthquakes are life threatening, unpredictable and uncontrollable phenomena that can cause widespread devastation and expose thousands of people to sudden bereavement, injury, loss of property, homelessness, and displacement (Livanou et al., 2004 p: 137). Thus the most common psychiatric conditions see among earthquake survivors are most traumatic stress disorder (post traumatic stress disorder) and depression (Salcioglu et al., 2007 p: 115), anxiety, sleep disorders, and substance abuse (Chen et al.,...
This being my senior project I wanted to look at a topic that I found
interesting. Even though I find most topics in the fields interesting, none
catch my attention better than naturaldisasters. I have always found disasters
intriguing and have wanted to know more about them. The disaster that I found
most interesting were Hurricanes. The thought of those storms with their power
gives me the chills. Ever since I was in the middle of Hurricane Bob when I was
vacationing with my family off the coast of Virginia and we were asked by the
state police to evacuate our house, I wanted to learn more about hurricanes.
Since that I have been able to take classes that enabled me to learn more about
hurricanes. That is why I have decided to take the focus of my paper towards
hurricanes. Furthermore, I am going to look at the economical affects that
hurricanes have on the United States. There are many reasons why I chose to use
this variable. The main reason is I couldn't think of another topic that fit
into e veryone's lives and had an effect on everyone.
The hurricane year is broken up into two seasons. They are referred to
as early season and late season. The early season starts June first and runs to
September 10. The late season starts on September 10 and runs to the end of
November. The date of September 10 is the midway point between the two seasons.
This is the date...
A naturaldisaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, severe weather,volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other geologic processes. A naturaldisaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover.
An adverse event will not rise to the level of a disaster if it occurs in an area without vulnerable population. In a vulnerable area, however, such as San Francisco, an earthquake can have disastrous consequences and leave lasting damage, requiring years to repair
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a...