On Native Soil What happened on September 11th 2001 was a tragedy, many innocent people lost their lives, and these people include police, firefighters, and many others. No one would have ever imagine that something so tragic could have happen, when all seem to be going fine with our country. September 11th has left a scar and on not just the families of those that died that day, but also the people across the nation. Many are still grieving over the loss of their wife, son, daughter, brother, sister, aunts, uncles and many others. The memory of this tragedy is still enlisted in our minds and every time September 11th come’s around for some it’s like reliving the moment all over again. With all the resources and technology in America how could something like this ever happen? It has been said over the years that the higher officials including the president knew that this attack was going to made on the world trade center, and nothing was done about it. Proper plans should have been made to ensure that all of America and elsewhere was protected. Upon the start of On Native Soil in the year 1997 in Afghanistan it is seen where reports interview Osama Bin Laden himself they being to ask him questions. One question was what was his reason for declaring a GI against the United States; Osama bin laden answer was because of American foreign policy in the Middle East, he said his targets were the American soldiers and anyone else who got in the way that was there problem. They went on to ask him about his future plans he proceed to tell them that they will not only see them but they will hear about they would hear about it in the media. Upon hearing these things why wasn’t investigations done, shouldn’t these comments trigger of red flags in the Bush and Clinton Administration. When they showed the images of how the planes went into the World Trade Center it was...
...What is Soil?
Soil is the surface of the earth’s crust where plants have their roots and where many small animals make their home. It is also a result of the breakdown of rocks.
Formation of SoilSoil is formed when rocks break down into very small particles by various processes such as weathering. There are two types of weathering: Physical Weathering and Chemical Weathering.
Physical Weathering arises from the heating and cooling, the wetting and drying, and the freezing and thawing of the land. These actions cause alternate expansion and contraction of rocks which eventually cause the rocks to crack. Factors which play important role in physical weathering include:
* Erosion by wind and water.
* The action of plants, for example, cracks caused by penetrating roots.
* The action of animals, for example, worm casts formed by earthworms.
* Human interference.
Chemical Weathering is the breakdown of rocks using a solvent that is able to dissolve the mineral structure. Chemical weathering is due largely to the oxidation and reduction of the elements in the soil. Oxidized rocks break up to form soil easily. Solution of minerals in the rocks helps in weathering. For example, when carbon dioxide dissolves in rain water it forms a weak solution of carbonic acid which can dissolve rocks which contain lime. Hydrolysis is another chemical action which...
Soil Porosity and Permeability
GEO 101 LAB – Earth Science
July 26, 2014
Soil Porosity and Permeability
The focus of week three’s lab in Earth Science is to figure out the porosity and permeability of four different soil types: gravel, sand, potting soil, and soil from my back yard. This lab is designed to look at the porosity and permeability of these four soil samples. Porosity is basically the measure of how much of the soil volume is open space. Permeability is the measurement of how long and how easily water goes through soil.
Porosity Percentage Graph
Description of Sample Total Volume
(ml) Volume Remaining in the Graduated Cylinder
(ml) Pore Space Porosity (% pore space)
45 55 29%
55 45 37%
Top Soil 100
25 75 14%
Your collected sample 100 35 65 21%
If I were an environmental engineer, I would recommend placing a drinking water well in gravel or sand because they are more permeable and they allow water to flow through more freely. Sand and gravel, are usually highly permeable. Sand and gravel have large spaces, or pores between particles where the water is stored. The large pores in sand and gravel are capable or yielding large quantities of water (Lutgens &Tarbuck, 2014). Sand, gravel, and other geological materials capable of transmitting and storing significant quantities of water are...
...EFFECTS OF SOIL EROSION IN THE PHILIPPINES
Soil erosion is happening everywhere in this world. Especially near the water area and maybe it is happening below where we stand. One my grandparents told me, that one time when they were young a typhoon with its devastating rain hit manila. Because they were near river, because of the heavy rain without warning the soil beneath their home collapse and their home was wash away in the river. And it said to be the cause of the collapse of the soil was the soil erosion. And because of soil erosion it has many effects in our self and in our country the Philippines. But first we need to know what soil erosion is, and how soil erosion works. Erosion is the process by which soil and rock are removed from the Earth's surface by natural processes such as wind or water flow, and then transported and deposited in other locations. Soil erosion is a natural process that we cannot stop.
And there is many factors that can affect on its physical process and how soil erosion work. First the Rainfall that can cause soil erosion. There are three primary types of erosion that occur as a direct result of rainfall sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion. Sheet erosion is generally seen as the first and least severe stage in the soil erosion process,...
...4.10 The Good Earth Pre-Activity Work File
Data Table/ Observations:
Note: If you are only observing two distinct layers of soil record your observations in the "uppermost" and "bottom" rows of the data table, leaving the "middle layer" row blank.
Total ThicknessTop LayerMiddle Layer
*If presentBottom LayerWater in Jar (after settling)
Determining Soil Type
Thickness of Layer (in cm)6.7inches
1inchAppearance of Water
Color?Very cloudyFor this part of the lab you will use the soil sample in the zip lock bag (from #2 in the procedure).Take a pinch and rub it between your fingers.
1. Did the soil feel rough/gritty? (yes or no) ____yes_____ or did it silky/smooth? (yes or no) ___no______
2. Take a handful of your soil. Try to shape it into a ball.
Could you? (yes or no) ____yes_____
3. If you answered yes, to #2 does the ball break apart easily without much effort? ___no____
4. Go to the resource site below. Scroll down until you see the “The Soil Identification Feel Test." Follow the instructions and identify your soil type.
Record your soil type here: _____sandy________________________
5. Color of LayerBrownish It is clear and a little bit of greyNot really noticeable but very light brown Dark brown
6. If there are things floating...
Date: 6/3/2013 Pd. 2
What Soil Recipe will grow the best Pea seed?
I believe that soil made up of 30% silt, 25% Water, 15% humus 5% Sand, 5% of Clay, and the assuming the other 25% is air, will grow the best pea seed.
100 Milliliter Dixie Cup Ground Clay _
Silt Water _
Pea Seed 100 ml measuring Beaker _
Humus Plastic Mixing Bowl _
Fine Sand Mixing Stick _
1. Measure 30 milliliters of silt, using the beaker.
2. Pour measured silt into the mixing bowl.
3. Measure 15 milliliters of humus, using the beaker.
4. Pour measured humus into mixing bowl.
5. Measure 5 milliliters of sand, using the beaker
6. Pour measured sand into mixing bowl.
7. Measure 5 milliliters of clay, using beaker.
8. Pour measured clay into measuring bowl.
9. Measure 25 milliliters of water, using the beaker.
10. Pour water into the mixing bowl.
11. Stir (using mixing stick) 60 times clockwise.
12. Pour mixture into the Dixie cup.
13. Pat the soil down firmly.
14. Dig a one inch hole.
15. Plant seed in the...
...Abstract: Soil Manipulation to increase efficiency.
The objective of this plant growth experiment would be to distinguish if potting soil could be manipulated in any certain way, to maximize or increase its overall efficiency. Our goal would be to determine what optimum combination of ingredients would best increase efficiency in soil productivity to equal the result of hydroponics (Cultivation of plants in nutrient solution rather than insoil). Through research our group came to the conclusion that agar, pearlite and mulched grass could all greatly contribute to enriching the nutrient of the soil. We predict that one of the treatments, using the above listed ingredients, will have a greater growth rate than the controlled plant strictly using hydroponics.
Water is essential in all plant growth. The term hydroponics refers to an optimum method of growing plant material. Hydroponics essentially means "Water Work." There is no soil in a hydroponic garden. No organic matter is present so nourishment (Nutrient) is not available to the plants in the same was as it is in a soil garden. Instead, nutrients are added to the water. So, as plants are watered, they are also fed. There are many ways to feed and water plants. Carol Haggas states, "This method provides a perfect, balanced, nutritive environment for a wide variety of vegetable and floral crops. With the...
Soil erosion occurs when soil is removed through the action of wind and water at a greater rate than it is formed
The soil covering the surface of the earth has taken millions of years to form and we must learn to respect it. Soil is formed at a rate of only 1 cm every 100 to 400 years and it takes 3 000 to 12 000 years to build enough soil to form productive land. This means that soil is a nonrenewable resource and once destroyed it is gone forever. If we disregard this, a time will come when there would not be enough soil left to sustain life on earth, because the soil is a necessary growth medium for plants, a home for certain insects and animals, as well as a medium from which we get minerals, such as gold. It is important therefore to treat soil, especially topsoil, as a living entity.
WHAT IS SOIL EROSION?
When a raindrop hits soil that is not protected by a cover of vegetation and where there are no roots to bind the soil, it has the impact of a bullet. Soil particles are loosened, washed down the slope of the land and either end up in the valley or are washed away out to sea by streams and rivers. Erosion removes the topsoil first. Once this nutrient-rich layer is gone, few plants will grow in the soil again....
This is the loss of topsoil by wind and water. It is a natural process, happening all the time, but usually slowly because of the protective covering of vegetation. New soil formation from weathering of surface rocks can generally keep pace and replace what is being lost. Rates of soil erosion are highest in dry climates where there is little surface vegetation to shelter the soil against wind, or on steep slopes in wet climates where the gradient increases the speed of surface water flows during heavy rainfall. Bad farming practice greatly speed up the process of erosion. The soil that is lost first is the topsoil, which is the most precious to farmers. Its loss can lead to a huge fall in output and in extreme cases there is no choice but to abandon farming the land.
Human causes of soil erosion
People clear natural vegetation without any thought for the physical consequences of their actions. This made very vulnerable the soil and exposed to the full power of wind and rain. Clearance of trees on slopes has great potential risk because: tree roots will no longer be present to hold the soil in place, tree leaves and branches will not be there to break the force of the falling rain, and obstructions like the tree stems will no longer be available to restrain surface-water flows down the slope. Farmers overexploit their land without taking...