There are many religious subcultures in every country. For an example, Malaysia has the main three races that are Malay, Chinese and Indian. Out of these three races, there are many religious and belief that are totally different from their own races. Religious that exist in Malaysia are Muslim, Buddha, Christian, Hindu, Taoism and others. The subcultures that have to looking in deep are the geographic region, nationality, age, gender, occupation and social class. Muslim people in Malaysia have their own perception based on their religions. Unlike other people, Muslim people in Malaysia are very strict when they making consumption and buying. This is because they have to look deep into the account whether the product had been approved by JAKIM to ensure it is “halal” for the consumption. Marketer has to get approved from JAKIM if they want to penetrate the Muslim market in Malaysia. This would need a lot of effort because it will go through a lot of procedures and steps. Muslim girls and guys have their own ways for the appearance such as dressing code. They usually not prefer the clothing that would too expose the body. Apart from it, Muslim girls also would prefer to choose the cosmetic product that manufactured by the local company as the local company more on understanding the behaviour and the culture of them. The Gen Y of Muslim people more prefer on the brand loyal and them willing to spend more for their need and wants. For an example, gadget such as electronic device(i-pad and Samsung smartphone) The Gen X of Muslim people more prefer on spending on the furbishing and renovation on their house. They also spend more on the education and entertainment. The baby boomer of Muslim people spends more on the investment and travel. Normally we called it as “zakat” money for the Muslim people to go to the Mekah for their “Haji”.It would spend a lot of money to travel to Mekah and normally the tourism in Malaysia would offer the package trip for the Muslim people...
...Subcultures and Subcultural Marketing
We are brought up to follow the beliefs, values, and customs of our society and to avoid behavior that is judged “unacceptable” or considered to be taboo. In addition to segmenting in terms of cultural factors, marketers also segment overall societies into smaller subgroups or subcultures that consist of people who are similar in terms of their ethnic origin, their customs, and the ways they behave. Thesesubcultures provide important marketing opportunities for astute marketing strategists.
So, now our discussion in this chapter on subcultures will be more focused compared to the other chapters. Instead of examining the dominant beliefs, values, and customs that exist within an entire society, we will explore the marketing opportunities created by the existence of certain beliefs, values, and customs shared by members of specific sub cultural groups within a society.
These sub cultural divisions are based on a variety of socio-cultural and demographic variables such as nationality, religion, geographic locality, race, age, sex, and even working status.
After studying this chapter we should be able:
Understand the concept of subcultures;
Identify the various types of subcultures and measure their impact on consumer behavior.
Culture can be divided into subcultures:...
...Might an organization be better considered as consisting of many subcultures which are conceptually different, rather than one 'major' culture? |
HRM Essay |
Irene Puig Portero |
Might an organization be better considered as consisting of many subcultures which are conceptually different, rather than one 'major' culture?
The topic concerning this essay is if consider an organization as a whole of subcultures or as a single culture. First of all, it is necessary to explain what a culture is and how it influences in the company environment. Upon this, subcultures and their types are explained. To finalize, it is analysed the convenience of consider a whole of subcultures or a major culture.
Executive managers in a company should ask continually themselves which elements are important for them business. The main aim is not only getting profits, but how to make them without harming the society or the employees of the organization.
This does not mean that the economic view has to be inattentive; on the contrary, a good practices implementation in the company can lead it into an earnings improvement, for instance, due to the good image perceived by customers. Ethics helps to strengthen the social responsibility objectives formulated and focused on the relationships management between the company and the stakeholders: customers, suppliers, public administration,...
...Culture and Subculture
Culture is part of the external influences that impact the consumer. That is, culture represents influences that are imposed on the consumer by other individuals.
The definition of culture offered in one textbook is “That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man person as a member of society.”
Culture has several important characteristics
1) Culture is comprehensive. This means that all parts must fit together in some logical fashion.
2) Culture is learned rather than being something we are born with.
3) Culture is manifested within boundaries of acceptable behavior.
4) Conscious awareness of cultural standards is limited.
5) Cultures fall somewhere on a continuum between static and dynamic depending on how quickly they accept change.
Culture can be further divided into subcultures. One's race, religion, age, geographical location, gender (male/female) and class are all ways subcultures can be established. The members of specific subculture possess beliefs, values, and customers that set them apart from other members of the same society. In addition, they adhere to most of the dominant cultural beliefs, values, and behavioral patterns of the larger society. So then we can define subculture, as a distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex...
...The beginnings of subculture theory involved various theorists associated with what became known as the Chicago School. Subcultural theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed through the symbolic interactionism school into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. The work associated with Birmingham University’s Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) was most responsible for the association of subculture with groupings based around spectacular styles (teds, mods, punks, skins, motorbike boys and so on).
Subculture theory: Chicago School of Sociology
The beginnings of subcultural theory involved various theorists associated with what became known as the Chicago School. Though the emphasis of the theorists varies, the school is most famous for a conception of subcultures as deviant groups, whose emergence had to do with ‘the interaction of people’s perceptions of themselves with others’ view of them’ . This is, perhaps, best summarized in Albert Cohen’s theoretical introduction to a study of ‘Delinquent Boys’ (1955). For Cohen, subcultures consisted of individuals collectively resolving societal status problems by developing new values which rendered status-worthy the characteristics they shared.
Acquisition of status within the...
...1. In general: youth subcultures, new generation.
Modern society consists of a lot of categories. We want to bring up today for presentation about culture. Specifically we will spell out about youth culture. Our topic is about subcultures and everything it means.
At first, let’s run through some definitions. 1. Subculture is a group of people within a culture which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belong. 2. Generation is a large group of people, connected with almost the same date of birth. Difference between generations is less than 20 years. For example, X-generation is our parents, generation of 80’s \ 90’s; new generation is about us. We will talk especially about new generation. We can deal with some characteristics that belong to us.
We are free. And it lets us to direct our power in different ways. That we do. Music, art and fashion subcultures are general spheres we use to stand out, but it is not a subject of our research. The worse way we choose is connected with small things that become very important and create an image of our generation. We talk about drugs, alcohol and smoking. My colleague continues…
2. Drugs, alcohol, tobaco: growing number of smokers, using drugs means "to be an adult", "en vino veritas".
Today it is fashionable to speak about teenage problems. A few years ago using drugs, alcohol and tobacco were more problems for adults than for young people....
...The straight edge subculture is a clean lifestyle movement born in a "just say no" era, which has received little attention since its origination in the 1980's. Subcultures, like social movements, engage in conflict over cultural reproduction, social integration, and socialization; they are often especially concerned with the quality of life, self-realization, and identity formation (Habermas 1984-87; Buechler 1995). The basic definition was created during this time in a hardcore-punk song of the Washington, DC, band Minor Threat. Ian Mackaye, the lead singer, wrote a song about living a life without drugs - the song "Straight Edge" included the six legendary words "don't drink, don't smoke, don't fuck" and this gave a name to a new movement amongst the youth of that time and preserved its fascination and attitude up to the new millennium (Irwin 1999).
The importance of their song, "Straight Edge" was not only that it was the first time the term was used, but also that it epitomized the movement by encompassing many of its philosophies. The first two lines of the first and second verse, "I'm a person just like you, But I've got better things to do," manifests that unlike previous punk ethics which called from a huge revolution, the straight edger emphasized the individual. Instead of a call for a revelation, they preferred to improve on what they already had. The movement's prominence lied within individual factors and choices. They lyrics of...
...Raver Subculture in Young America
Over the past few years, an interesting focus has developed among our youth subculture in American society today. I have been interested in how the raver subculture has come into existence, and how they are able to maintain their unanimity and cohesiveness. This subculture mainly consists of people who go to "raves," also known as, underground dance parties where people go to hear "techno" (electronically produced) music and have intense experiences, which they feel are self-transforming. The ravers use an emotionally laden jargon to attempt to explain the intensity of their experiences to the unconverted. I felt that by researching the rave subculture I could come to a conclusion as to why ravers are choosing to use ecstasy as their choice of drug and the effects of it.
There has been a great deal of research into how the rave subculture came into being from organization around music, to drugs, and countercultural norms and deviant practices in society. While there have been efforts to look at the interrelations between language, culture, and identity, most of this research in these areas has not looked into the process of language formation and the ways in which existing languages are altered to fit new constantly changing roles, perceptions, and identities. However, my research will put emphasize on how in this subculture there...
...Identify and explain two ways which youth subcultures are influenced by social class.(17)
One example if subculture that is influenced by social class are punks.they have been studied by Dick Hebdige. Punks have emerged in the 1970's their subculture was a response to dominance of the media. Punks were a working class subculture and they were frustrated with the economy and social situations.
Hebdige came up with the term 'bank generation' to describe that the only thing they had in common was their rejection of everything that was orderly, restrained and sacred. Their music was depressing, the bands like 'The Clast' were about unemployment, life on estate, benefits and 'the white riots'. Punks were a compleat opposite of skinhead subculture however they also have problems with unemployment and had enough of working-class life.
Hebdige studied Punks style and he said the the way they dread was a way to so say do-it-yourself culture which costed very little because they used old clothes and items that were no longer usable. Their clothing was old and ripped, they were from a variety of sources, even household items like bin liners etc. Their hair was shaped in different unusual styles and they had a lot of body piercings. Usually their body
piercings were made out of household objects.
Outline and evaluate the view that ethnic minority subcultures are formed in response to...