J PROD INNOV MANAG 2007;24:442–455
r 2007 Product Development & Management Association
Global Innovation in MNCs: The Effects of Subsidiary
Self-Determination and TeamworkÃ
Ram Mudambi, Susan M. Mudambi, and Pietro Navarra
The ability of multinational corporations (MNCs) to leverage their innovation competencies across globally dispersed subsidiaries is an increasingly valuable source of competitive advantage. As multinational enterprises turn to foreign subsidiaries for research and development (R&D) and product development, questions arise regarding the most effective organizational structures for global innovation. Although organizational conditions that satisfy the needs for self-determination and teamwork have long been considered intrinsic motivators, past research has not analyzed the consequences of intrinsic motivators on global innovation. The basic research question is this: In globally dispersed subsidiary R&D units, what organizational conditions and motivators are associated with the highest knowledge output? A sample of 275 globally dispersed R&D subsidiaries were studied from 1995 to 2002. Data were collected from a postal survey, ﬁeld and telephone interviews, and secondary sources. Subsidiary self-determination and teamwork were found to have a signiﬁcant effect on knowledge output, as objectively measured by patent citations. Subsidiary selfdetermination on inputs such as sourcing and hiring, and self-determination on outputs such as marketing and product development, emerged as positive determinants of knowledge generation in R&D subsidiaries. In addition, interteam cooperation and intrateam cooperation were signiﬁcant determinants of knowledge generation by subsidiaries. These ﬁndings highlight the importance of self-determination, teamwork, and cooperation to knowledge creation and innovations. Managers face the tough challenge of how to motivate globally dispersed knowledge workers to conduct research that will generate knowledge and will strengthen ﬁrm performance. The results provide theoretical and practical insights on how MNCs can leverage their innovation competencies across foreign R&D subsidiaries.
ompetition in many industries has become
more knowledge and technology intensive as
ﬁrms strive to increase their global innovation
Address correspondence to: Susan M. Mudambi, Temple University, Department of Marketing, Speakman Hall, Fox School of Business and Management, Philadelphia PA 19122. Tel.: (215) 204-3561. Fax: (215) 204-6237. E-mail: [email protected]
Ã The authors would like to thank seminar participants at the Copenhagen Business School, Janine Black, Sjoerd Beugelsdijk, Nicolai Foss, Vikas Kumar, Jacqueline Pennings, Junfeng Zhang, three anonymous referees, and the special issue editors for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript.
capabilities. The ability of multinational corporations
(MNCs) to leverage their innovation competencies
across globally dispersed subsidiaries is an increasingly valuable source of competitive advantage (Almeida, 1996; Frost, 2001; Hansen, 2002; Hansen and Lovas,
2004; Nobel and Birkinshaw, 1998). As multinational
enterprises turn to foreign subsidiaries for research and
development (R&D) and product innovation, questions
arise regarding the most effective organizational structures for global innovation (Chiesa, 2000; McDonough, Kahn, and Barczak, 2001; Mendez, 2003).
Organizational structures need to reﬂect human
nature and the motivation of the scientists involved
GLOBAL INNOVATION IN MNCs
(Steiner, 1995). With this in mind, motivation theory is
drawn on to explain how the level of self-determination
and teamwork of globally dispersed R&D subsidiaries
is important to innovation. Motivation theory has typically been employed to understand and explain actions at the individual level. In contrast, in this article
motivation theory is applied at the organizational...
Dr. Munzir Ishaque
Marketing Plan for
CleanWell Hand Sanitizer
CleanWell Hand Sanitizer - Zero germs – instantly!!
LETTER OF AUTHORIZATION
Students of Principles of Marketing
Institute of Business Management
We have been authorized to conduct an elaborate study on the Marketing Plan of any product, by the Management of Institute of Business Management and the course instructor of Principles of Marketing, Dr. Munzir Ishaque. The enclosed plan contains thorough Marketing Plan and its associated required elements.
Emphasis will be to evaluate as much material as possible to familiarize ourselves as well as the readers with the overall planning activities, when marketing any product.
I hope that this report will serve the requirement of being a complete set of information to develop any marketing plan.
Muhammad Khurram Zakaria
Suleman Ahmed Ali
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
April 19, 2009
Dr. Munzir Ishaque
Principles of Marketing
Institute of Business Management
Here is the marketing plan of CleanWell Hand Sanitizer that you have assigned and authorized us is now ready for your perusal....
ManagementInformation System (MIS)
In my words, ManagementInformation System is a digital, or computer based tool, which provides managers of all levels, as well as regular employees, with information crucial to perform their tasks more effectively.
ManagementInformation Systems are used especially by managers and they help them with different areas of their work:
gathering needed information
evaluation of processes
ManagementInformation Systems combine information from various dimensions or branches of the company or organization, such as:
Some synonyms for MIS are as follows:
Some examples of ManagementInformation Systems:
CFM (Car Fleet Management)
CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)
Examples of MIS
car fleet management (cfm) and customer relationship management (crm)
CFM: System that helps to control how cars are used in a company. Driving performance, fuel usage but also sales performance and efficiency.
USOS Web: Internet platform, used to help students to enrol courses and...
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGERS
Thanks to the rapid development of technology, Internet is being used widely, which is a good background for the breakout and development of e commerce in the near future.
Group buying, a kind of e-commerce, started in US and then has developed everywhere in the world. It has been developing gradually in Vietnam since 2010.
The study will present this model in the world and also in Vietnam, interpret its success and weakpoints, set up a new business model.
This model is not just a business but a combination of trade and technology.
OVERVIEW OF NHOMMUA
1.1 Company description
NHOMMUA established in October 2010, is a subsidiary of a German group- Rebate Network investing in Asia which is also the host of DiaDiem.com website. It is now making up 35,89% of the market with very remarkable total revenue of 225,589 m VND. NhomMua gets Alexa rate as 14.753. (1/6/2011)
NhomMua is now considered the most successful group buying in Vietnam as it provides costomers in Ho Chi Minh City, and Ha noi with high quality goods or services with very high discount rate even up to 90%. The number of members has increased up to 500,000 now and about 4million people access this website everyday.
...Sales and marketing is a very competitive business. The internet has become a very important platform for sales and marketing and it is a very competitive marketplace.
The internet has created an entirely new way for companies to conduct marketing and sales. Along with this comes the process of using marketing to influence the customers online experience so that the end result is a sale. The internet has changed the sales andmarketing process from small businesses to large enterprises.
Online sales can not only increase sales for a business it is also very appealing for consumers. According to an article in Time Magazine online “rising financial anxiety and tight credit availability are making holiday shopping this year an exercise in self-restraint, and the web offers a quick, clean shot at purchasing 24 hours a day. Bargain hunting for the best value is a convenient mouse click away. That's an easier proposition for many than slogging to the mall and fighting traffic, crowds and parking problems. Comparison shopping online dwarfs what you can do in the real world. You just open up six browsers."(Time Magazine) This convenience is one reason that the holiday season for 2008 is expected to produce higher growth of online sales than that of brick and mortar stores. In fact “the internet should outdo the sidewalk in delivering sales growth: holiday forecasts predict zero to 2.2% overall sales gains...
Module Title: MarketingManagement
Programme: MBA – Part Time
Table of Content
1.0 Introduction 2
2.0 Executive Summary 2
3.0 Business Nature of AmBank 3
4.0 Past and Present Business Strategy 3
5.0 Challenges of AmBank 4
6.0 Customer Experience 5
7.0 Customer and Marketing Segmentation, Targeting and
Positioning of AmBank 6
8.0 Rebranding 9
9.0 RightMarketing Mix 12
9.1 Product 12
9.2 Price 13
9.3 Promotion 14
9.4 Place 14
9.5 Process 15
9.6 People 16
9.7 Psychical Environment 17
10.0 Conclusion 17
11.0 Reference 18
12.0 Appendix 1 20
How much does a company really concern on their customers’ experiences nowadays? No matter you are in a small business or international company employing over 10000 employees, the common challenges are the same. It is insufficient to just know where customers shop or what brand of product they purchase. It becomes a big challenge in marketingmanagement efficiency, do not even talk further about survival, growth, profitability business and desired image in public.
The key to competitiveness is being able to understand why customers make the choices they do, how they feel about their choices and what they experience at each...
Prepared by: Simchit Say-Khoo
FIN No: G1328375W
Batch: ABMD 1578A
Course: Advanced Diploma in Business Management
Lecturer: Roland Kiew
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Nissan Motor Company Ltd, formerly known as Nihon Sangyo, is an internationally renowned automobile firm that was established in 1933 by Yoshisuke Aikawa (Nissan, 2015). Now, almost 80 years later, Nissan has proliferated in size to become one of the world’s prime automobile suppliers with an annual sales volume of 5,188,000 vehicles as of 2013, with a prodigious 6.2% in global market share (Nissan Motor Corporation, 2014).
Nissan Motor Company bears a widespread sundry of products catering to the many needs and wants of different types of consumers. However, being aware that a single product is unable to please everyone, they undergo a process of Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning, dividing the market into segments of consumers with homogeneous characteristics and placing their resources to serve the needs of the different target markets in order to deliver a special benefit which would lead to consumer value. Some products are:
Nissan Leaf- which is aimed to satisfy consumers that are keen to converse the environment (Pasley, N.d),
Nissan Juke- for consumers...
...Program: Master of business administration
Module title: Marketingmanagement
Module tutor: Dr. Arion Wong
Deadline for submission: Jan 5 2015
Student number: U6U4AS6HRQ
Student name: Wong Ting Hing
1. Executive summary of GNC marketing plan
GNC is the world’s largest chain of specialty vitamin, mineral, herbal and sports nutritional supplement retailers. Although they are the best in the world, But in china, potential the biggest market and largest population country in the world. GNC is still a small size and also an unknown brand. To hit the market in china, the branding strategy decision process become very important. Hong Kong, a financial center and tourism city for china, return from the United Kingdom to china back in 1997. Hong Kong become a window and an opportunity for a lot of international brand to enter the large Chinese market. Therefore, GNC must use Hong Kong for their first stage, in the coming 3 years, GNC must focus on develop a brand of products that fit in to entering the China market. So, understanding the Chinese market become an important part of strategy planning. For example, the customers’ background, culture, purchasing pattern, behavior etc.
Introduction of GNC
GNC is the world’s largest chain of specialty vitamin, mineral, herbal and sports nutritional supplement retailers. Our first store was opened in 1935 in Pittburgh by David Shakarian. Originally called...
...Multinational Financial Management – Corporate Finance
RSM Erasmus University
Department of Finance
Almost tautologically, international finance selects from the broad field of
finance those issues that have to do with the existence of many distinct
countries. The fact that firms operate in countries which operate as separate
entities severely complicates a CFO’s life. Some, but by no means all, of the
issues that arise due to multinational operations are:
National currencies, exchange rates and exchange rate risks;
The segmentation of goods markets along national lines, which in
combination with price stickiness leads to the use of ‘real’ exchange
The fragmentation of equity markets between different countries, but
also market providers;
Differences in national judicial systems which complicates bankruptcy,
default proceedings and risk management in a unified framework;
The political autonomy of countries, which gives rise to political risk;
Separate and incompatible tax systems which give rise to double or
All these issues bring to bear in the decision making process of a CFO while
handling the tasks of funding, evaluation, and risk. The CFO is required to
acquire or have knowledge about international financial markets (equity, bond,
and currency markets, as well as the markets for derivatives such as options