THINKING FROM THE QUR’ANIC PERSPECTIVE
The Qur’an is the main reference and source of knowledge for Muslims. It is logically follows that understanding the concept of thinking should also be referred to the Qur’an. Even though the word intellect is mentioned 49 times in the Qur’an and there are hundreds of verses that urge Muslims to think, but the theory of thinking from the Qur’anic perspective is not extensively explored to guide Muslim educators and curriculum designers and developers. This paper attempts to explore the concept of good thinking from the Qur’anic perspective. It extensively examines verses of the Qur’an pertaining to the intellect and thinking to come up with a theory of good thinking. From the analysis of the relevant Qur’anic verses, the researcher found that the intellect is capable of rational and spiritual cognition as a result of applying critical, creative, ethical and spiritual thinking. Therefore, the researcher posits that good thinking from the Qur’anic perspective is multi-dimensional; and the dimensions are critical, creative, ethical and spiritual thinking. Further, according to the Qur’an, the aim of good thinking is to achieve wisdom. Hence, this paper also explicates the meaning of wisdom from the Qur’anic perspective. Implications for the curriculum of Muslim educations were also discussed.
Key words: the intellect, thinking in the Qur’an, good thinking, spiritual thinking, wisdom
Muslim scholars agreed that Muslim mind is infected with blind imitiation. Blind imitation or taqlid is a sickness that has infected Muslim minds which is unnatural to the Muslims since the Qur’an repeatedly urges Muslims to think critically before accepting any idea as practicable solutions to predicaments of the ummah. Al-Alwani stresses that “increase in taqlid has caused a growing belief in fatalism”. It also has become a fertile breeding ground for rigid, narrow and superficial thinking; which are the manifestations of the paralysis of the Muslim minds. While reading the Qur’an, one will stumble upon hundreds of verses that keep reminding reader over and over again to use his/her intellect to think. These verses provoked the readers to think by questioning readers in a negative form for not using their intellect and for not thinking. The fact that there are hundreds of verses that mentioned about the intellect in action shows that thinking is necessary and strongly encouraged. The Qur’an does not merely ask but provoke, challenge and appeal to readers to use their intellect. We conclude that the problem with thinking among Muslims stems from lack of awareness and understanding of the Qur’anic verses on the power of the intellect and thinking because of scarcity of literature on thinking from the Qur’anic perspective. Therefore, this paper attempts to give awareness and to expose thinking from the Qur’anic perspective. First, this paper identifies Qur’anic verses pertaining to thinking and attempts to interpret the meaning of those verses through the method of interpreting one verse using another verses of the Qur’an that deal with the same subject and through contemplation. They explain that contemplation on the Qur’anic verse is reciting it, reviewing it, dwelling on its meanings in an attempt to know all the possible meanings it contains, and allowing one’s thought to wander freely and unhampered through it in order to arrive at the hidden meanings that Allah reveals to certain people of intellect and understanding (p: 14).
THINKING IN THE QUR’AN
As early as verse 44 in the second chapter of the Qur’an, readers are provoked by a negative question, afala ta’qilun (will you not use your intellect?). There are 13 verses which question readers negatively for not using their intellect, afala ta’qilun which means “do you not think”; “have you no understanding”; or “will you not use your reason. Al-Qardhawi explains that Allah asks man in the...
...History of Math
September 29, 2011
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi was a Muslim mathematician and astronomer that was born around 780 in Baghdad, Iraq and died around 850. Little is known about his life besides is attributes to mathematics; historians aren’t even for sure where he was really born, but doesn’t matter because we know his strengths in math. The Muslim leader known as Caliph during Al-Khwarizmi’s time was al-Munan. Al-Khwarizmi was a religious man and presented two of his works dedicated to al-Munan. “These were his treatise on algebra and his treatise on astronomy.” Al-Khwarizmi studied and was a scholar at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. He was a member of Bana Musa (sons of Moses) along with his colleagues. Their main goal at the House of Wisdom was to translate the Greek manuscripts into Arabic; however they also were there to further their studies in algebra, geometry and astronomy, as well as writing more about these subjects. It is unknown to historians if Al-Khwarizmi was familiar with Euclid’s Elements or not but it is said that al-Hajjaj was one of his colleagues in the House of Wisdom and al-Hajjaj was in charge of translating the Elements into Arabic (O’Connor).
Al-Khwarizmi wrote Hisab al-jabr...
...Al-Khwarizmi: The Father of Algebra
Muhammed Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, was a mathematical pioneer, and is considered by many to be the greatest mathematician of the Islamic world, as well as the founder algebra. His book entitled Kitâb al-Mukhtasar fî Hisâb al-Jabr wa'l-Muqâbala, which means “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing,” established algebra as an independent discipline. While his arithmetic work, possibly entitled Kitāb al-Jamʿ wa-l-tafrīq bi-ḥisāb al-Hind (Book of Addition and Subtraction According to the Hindu Calculation), was responsible for introducing the Arabic numerals, based on the Hindu-Arabic numeral system developed in India, to the Western world (Mohamed, 2000).
The Life of Al-Khwarizmi
Al-Khwarizmi (c. 780-850) was a Persian mathematician, astrologer, and geographer whose name may indicate that he came from Khwarezm, a region in present day Uzbekistan (Wikipedia, 2010). He worked under Caliph al-Ma’mun at the House of Wisdom in Bagdad during the early part of the ninth century. Caliph al-Ma’mun was said to be a great patron of learning and scientific investigation, who established the House of Wisdom, an elite academy of talented scholars whose main function was to translate classic books of antiquity into Arabic (Burton, 2007). The caliph showed a genuine interest in...
...Formulas for the Future
Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Musa Al-khwarizmi, was a Persian mathematician, geographer, and astronomer. He was born sometime in 780 AD in Baghdad, then later died there around 850 AD. At that time the area he lived in was the epicentre of an Islamic empire which extended from the Mediterranean all the way to India. He was a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. “The wordal-Khwarizmi is pronounced in classical Arabic as Al-Khwarizmi” (bookrags) Al-khwarizmi was the author of over half a dozen astronomical books. The most remarkable was titled Al-jabr w’al muqabala, which was written around 830 AD. Al-khwarizmi did most of his research and writing in the House of Wisdom, along side other scholars.
His book Al-jabr w’al muqabala is what gave the branch Al-jabr to mathematics. It is now known as algebra. “The word al-jabr is usually translated as "restoring," with reference to restoring the balance in an equation by placing on one side of an equation a term that has been removed from the other.” (ms) For example 2x+2=8, the balance is restored by writing 2x=6 and then x=3. “The second part of the title, al muqabala, probably meant "simplification," as in the case of combining 2x+5x to obtain 7x, or by subtracting out equivalent terms...
...Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Al-Razi was one of the greatest eastern scholars, he made a lot of contributions which have a great impact on eastern society and many sciences. He was born in Rayy, Iran in the year 865 AD (251 AH), and died there in 925 AD. During his life Razi was physician, philosopher, and scholar who made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, and philosophy, he wrote more than 184 books and articles in various fields of science, his most important accomplishment being the discovery of alcohol(Wikipedia,2006). He was well versed in Greek medical knowledge and added substantially to it from his own observations.
In Persian, Razi means "from the city of Rayy, an ancient town in the south of the Caspian Sea, situated near Tehran, Iran. In this city he accomplished most of his work. In his early life he could have been a jeweler, a money-changer but more likely a lute-player who changed his interest in music to alchemy. At the age of forty he stopped his study of alchemy because its experiments caused an eye-disease, obliging him to search for physicians and medicine to cure it. This was the reason why he began his medical studies. His teacher was 'Ali ibn Rabban al-Tabari, a physician and philosopher born in Merv about 192 (Wikipedia, 2006). Al-Razi studied medicine and probably also philosophy with ibn Rabban al-Tabari....
...Abu Ja’far Al-Khwarizmi
Abu Ja’far Al-Khwarizmi was a Muslim mathematician in the late 8th century. His full name is Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi. He heavily influenced our math today, and he developed a base for math today. (“Periodic”). Al-Khwarizmi was a very intelligent mathematician who wrote a book on algebra and geometry which influences today’s world of mathematics.
There is very little known about Al-Khwarizmi’s early life (MacTutor). He was born in 780 AD, and died in 850 AD (World Biography). He worked at the House of Wisdom (in Baghdad), where his he studied algebra, geometry, and astrology (“Periodic”).
Al-Khwarizmi wrote a book about algebra and geometry. He named it the Hisab al-jabr w’al-muquabala. The book consisted of mostly algebra, but some geometry. Today, the word algebra comes from “al-jabr”. In this book, “He only used words to describe his expressions, no symbols are used” (“Periodic”). So, instead of writing: 2+3=5, he wrote: two plus three equals five. Most of his math in the book was influenced by the Hindu mathematician Brahmagupta (Mac Tutor). In the book, he demonstrates that algebra and geometry are similar (Book Rags).
There is a lot of simple algebra in his book. First he shows what natural numbers are, and how to use the ten digits. Then he shows how to solve equations using PEMDAS. First, he...
...15 were presumed dead on March 24. On 21 April, 2011, President el-Assad abolished the SSSC and issued a decree stating peaceful protests as a basic human right, which was now guaranteed by the Syrian Constitution.
4. Closed Society
Throughout the Syrian Crisis both, the UN and the United States attempted to aid the people of Syria. The UN have helped take in refugees that have fled the country, and have also condemned the violence against civilians. The UN has not come up with a solution for the madness occurring in Syria. The United States waits for aid with limited missile attack.
5. Extreme/Ruthless Leadership
Bashar al-Assad had no interest to enter politics, but a tragic death and a calculating father changed that. Though promising to be a transformational figure who would propel Syria into the 21st century, al-Assad failed, and instead followed in the footsteps of his father, leading to demands for reform and responding with a violent crackdown on the people of Syria. The world leaders also think of him as inhuman who uses chemicals to terrorize civilians.
Genocide is the deliberate killing of large groups of people. Syria is still at a risk phase. Evidence proves that in April 2012, a Peace Proposal was given by the UN, but the violence never lessened. The UN then gave a non binding statement stating that the escalating violence is unacceptable and must be stopped to ensure safety throughout...
Mohammed Ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi was born was born about 790 AD near Baghdad. and died about 850 AD. He was known as a mathematician and astronomer who was a faculty member at the "House of Wisdom" established in Baghdad by Al-Mamun the Seventh Khaliph of Abbasid Empire. As a scholar at the House of Wisdom, al-Khwarizmi, directed and engaged in intellectual interests ranging from algebra and geometry to astronomy and the translation of Greek scientific manuscripts .
Introducing the Numeric Numbers:
Al-Khwarizmi wrote several books that played important roles in arithmetic and algebra. In his work, that based most probably on an Arabic translation of Brahmagupta (Indian Book) where he gave a full account of the Hindu numerals which was the first to explain the system with its digits 0,1,2,3,....,9 and decimal place value which was a fairly recent arrival from India. The new entry came to be known as that of al-Khwarizmi, ultimately the scheme of numeration making use of the Hindu numerals came to be called simply algorism or algorithm, a word that, originally derived from the name al-Khwarizmi, now means, more generally, any abnormal rule of procedure or operation.
His Great Book:
It was at the House of Wisdom that al-Khwarizmi wrote his dissertation al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa'l-muqabala or "The...
...MuhammadAl-Fateh is the Conqueror of Constantinople
So how to become perfectionists:
1- By having a goal in life.
2- A strong willpower.
4- Knowledge and expertise, or seeking the assistance of the experts.
These, if you noticed, are the same elements of positiveness. If you find these 4 elements in you, perfection will come automatically.
I will relate to you the story of a person who had all those elements, and the result was an excellent and astounding work! This man is MuhammadAl-Fateh (Muhammad the Conqueror). I told you his story before, but very briefly. Now I will tell it in detail:
MuhammadAl-Fateh is the Conqueror of Constantinople, but let me first tell you about this city.
Constantinople is a city connecting the Mediterranean with the Black Sea, and Asia with Europe. It was considered the best global trade center in the medieval ages. About it Napoleon said: “If the world was one kingdom, there will be no better city befitting to be its capital than Constantinople”. The Romans were controlling it, and they led the whole world. Muslims tried to conquer it since the days of our master Ali Bin Abi-Talib (for over 800 years!), but in vain.
This was because of its fortified fortresses:
1- A moat outside the city walls, with a depth of 10 meters, and a width of 60 meters!
2- It had...