The !rst Islamic century began in 622 of the Common Era with the hijra (Hegira), Muh.ammad’s ‘emigration’ from Mecca to the town of Yathrib, which lies about 275 miles to the north. As we shall see, the event was a turning point in Muh.ammad’s life: delivered from the pagan opposition of the city of his birth, he was free to preach, teach and lead in Yathrib so successfully that he remained there until his death in 632. In time it would even come to be called ‘the Prophet’s city’ or ‘the city’ (Medina) tout court. The hijra thus marked a new beginning for Muh.ammad and his followers. It also illustrates a striking feature of Islamic history. For Muh.ammad’s decision to leave Mecca was in purpose both deeply religious and deeply political.
On the one hand, he and those who believed in his prophecy were escaping polytheist intolerance towards his uncompromising monotheism. They were making their way to a town where, as the Qurpan seems to show, Muh.ammad’s ideas about God, man, this World and the Next, would evolve and sharpen, in part because he came into contact with the town’s Jews, and in part because as Muslim numbers grew, so, too, did their demands upon him. Far more than in hostile Mecca, it was in Muh.ammad’s experience in Medina, as it is re"ected in the Qurpan (the great bulk of which was apparently revealed there) and Prophetic tradition, that so much of Islamic belief and law came to be anchored. At the same time, the emigration to Yathrib was not merely religious; for Muh.ammad and his contemporaries lived in a pocket of western Arabia where institutionalised forms of governance were as underdeveloped as ties of real, imagined and adopted kinship were strong. (Even in the very di#erent settled culture of South Arabia, kingship was relatively weak.1) In a society where social di#erentiation was relatively modest, it was as kinsmen (or confederates and the like) that the tribesmen married, shared and wor shipped idols, herded, raided, defended and...
...EarlyLife of the Prophet Muhammad (whose name means "highly praised") was born in Mecca in 570 AD. His father died shortly before his birth, and he lost his mother at the age of six. The young orphan was then raised mostly by his uncle, as a young man, Muhammad worked as a camel driver between Syria and Arabia. Soon he established a career managing caravans for merchants. Through his travel first with his uncle and later in his career, Muhammad came into contact with people of many nationalities and faiths, including Jews, Christians and pagans. At age 25, Muhammad was employed by Khadija, a wealthy Meccan widow 15 years his senior. The two were married, and by all accounts enjoyed a loving and happy marriage. Early records report that "God comforted him through her, for she made his burden light." Although polygamy was common practice at the time, Muhammad took no other wife than Khadija until her death 24 years later.
Revelation In his late 30s Muhammad took to regularly visiting a cave in Mount Hira, on the outskirts of Mecca, to seek solitude and contemplation. In 610, at the age of 40, Muhammad returned from one such visit telling his wife he had either gone mad or become a prophet, for he had been visited by an angel. The initially startled Khadija became his first convert. Muhammad reported that while in a trance-like state, the Angel Gabriel appeared to him and said "Proclaim!" But like Moses, Muhammad was a reluctant...
...a major event in the life of Hazrat Muhammad and one that must have had a great impact on his character. His impressions of the war were in all probability probably concerned with the tragic results of the war and the bloodshed and the unnecessary human suffering. Being the first armed conflict that he witnessed, the pernicious consequences of war influenced his mild and peaceful loving temperament and he must have developed a very strong and lasting dislike for war.
At the same time, his indirect participation in the war also gave him a military experience that was so vital for any person destined to be the leader of people through a major socio-religious revolution.
Objectives of pact:
As a result of Fijar thousands of lives were lost. When the leaders of Makkah saw the effects of the war, they formed a league called the Half-al-Fazul with the objectives of maintaining peace in the region and also for suppressing violence and injustice and for upholding the rights of the weak, the poor and the destitute.
Naming of pact:
This alliance was called al-Fazul because three of the main participants were called al-fazl. It is also suggested by historians that this alliance was called Fazul because it was made for a noble cause: Fazul means maintaining honor.
To sign pact, the Hashimites under the leadership of Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib along with some other tribes assembled in the house of a noble Quraish, Abdullah bin Judan....
...It’s the seventeenth century in early America. I’m Peter Fuller, me and my family of four have come overseas from London, England to start a new life in the colony of Massachusetts. Back in London we were just your average middle class family who worked very hard to make money. We were not poor but we were far from wealthy. I worked as a shopkeeper and my wife was a school teacher. While we were content with our lives in England we wanted a chance to start over and have a chance to get wealthy quickly. We aren’t very young so we want to enjoy life and give our children a chance to be well off once my wife and I are gone.
I have two children, one is a six-year-old boy named Jonathan and the other a four-year-old little girl named Adeline. When my family first arrived here, the area was quite different from London but we found the surrounding community to be a little similar to home. There were lots of other middle class families who were in their thirties and forties, and there were lots of farmers. When we first arrived we were amazed at how rich the land was but we soon learned that it required a great deal of work to farm it. Only people with an incredible work ethic and persistency could take on the task of farming the land here. One of the toughest parts of farming was clearing the land, this task proved to be almost as difficult as actually farming the land itself. In our area each farmer had their own private plots of...
...Life OF EARLY MAN
Early Human’s Life
Posted Date: 15-Apr-2012
Last Updated: 15-Apr-2012
Author: Sushil Kumar Saini
Member Level: Diamond
Points: 100 (Rs 100)
In early days, human life was very hard. They spent their life in caves, wrap animal skin and tree leaves over their body and hunt animals for food. With time, they discovered many good things like fire, tools, farming etc. that made their life better than earlier. But these changes in early human’s life had taken a very long time. Through ‘Early Human's Life' educational series, we are trying to take some snapshots of efforts made by early humans to become civilized.
Early Human's Life
Today, we live a better life in concrete flats and facilitated with TV, Video, schools and colleges; have variety of nutritional foods, and better means of communication and transportation. But can you imagine a life without such facilities for us? A life where there is no big society, no house to live, no good food, no clothes to wear etc. How does it feel to listen? Yes, you are right. We are talking about the wild life. And this was the life of none other...
...Earlylife and talent
Kurfürstliches Schloss (Electoral Prince's Castle) in Bonn, where the Beethoven family had been active since the 1730s
House of birth, Bonn, Bonngasse
Beethoven's parents were Johann van Beethoven (1740 in Bonn–1792) and Maria Magdalena Keverich (1744 in Ehrenbreitstein–1787). Magdalena's father Johann Heinrich Keverich had been Chef at the court of the Archbishopric of Trier at Festung Ehrenbreitstein fortress opposite to Koblenz. Beethoven was, like their first child Ludwig Maria, named after his grandfather Ludwig (1712–1773), a musician of Roman Catholic Flemish ancestry who was at one time Kapellmeister at the court of Clemens August of Bavaria, the Prince-Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, and who married Beethoven's grandmother Maria Josepha Ball (1714–1775) in 1733.
Beethoven was born in Bonn, Electorate of Cologne, in 1770. Of the seven children born to Johann Beethoven, himself the only survivor of three, only second-born Ludwig and two younger brothers survived infancy. Beethoven was baptized on December 17, 1770. Although his birth date is not known for certain, his family celebrated his birthday on December 16.
Beethoven's first music teacher was his father, who was a tenor in the service of the Electoral court at Bonn. He was reportedly a harsh instructor. Johann later engaged a friend, Tobias Pfeiffer, to preside over his son's musical training, and it is said Johann and his friend would at...
...The EarlyLife of Salvador Dali
Salvador Dali had a dream that turned into inspiration to create The Persistence of Memory, now a world known master piece. Dali was born in Spain in 1904, and named Salvador after his brother who had died just nine months earlier at the age of three. At the age of five, Dali’s parents took him to his brother’s grave, where they told him he was simply his brother reincarnated. Dali also visit the grave and placed flowers on it, all while looking at the tombstone with his name written on it. Thus, Dali became obsessed with his alter ego and trying to find his true self.
His father was a well off man who made regular visits to prostitutes. His father believed that somehow he had transmitted a venereal disease to his first son. Due to his father’s paranoia, Dali was shown pictures of sores and syphilis at a young age. Dali recalled these imagines as being frightening and grotesque, and began associating them with sexuality as a whole. Dali also became obsessed with his strangely complex sexuality. As an adolescent he came to realized he was poorly equipped for intercourse. A disturbing discovery, his comment in his “Unspeakable confessions” were: “For a long time I experienced the misery of believing I was impotent,”. ''Naked, and comparing myself to my school friends, I discovered that my penis was small, pitiful and soft. I can recall a pornographic novel whose Don Juan machine-gunned female genitals with...
Adam Smith was born to Margaret Douglas at Kirkcaldy, Scotland. His father, also named Adam Smith, was a lawyer, civil servant, and widower who married Margaret Douglas in 1720. His father died six months before Smith's birth. The exact date of Smith's birth is unknown; however, his baptism was recorded on 16 June 1723 at Kirkcaldy. Though few events in Smith's early childhood are known, Scottish journalist and biographer of Smith John Rae recorded that Smith was abducted by gypsies at the age of four and eventually released when others went to rescue him.
Smith was particularly close to his mother, and it was likely she who encouraged him to pursue his scholarly ambitions. Smith attended the Burgh School of Kirkcaldy from 1729 to 1737, and there studied Latin, mathematics, history, and writing. Rae characterized the Burgh School as "one of the best secondary schools of Scotland at that period".
A commemorative plaque for Adam Smith is located at Smith's home town of Kirkcaldy.
Smith entered the University of Glasgow when he was fourteen and studied moral philosophy under Francis Hutcheson. Here he developed his passion for liberty, reason, and free speech. In 1740, Smith was awarded the Snell exhibition and left the University of Glasgow to attend Balliol College, Oxford.
Smith considered the teaching at Glasgow to be far superior to that at Oxford, and found his Oxford...
...Early Colonial Life
During the seventeenth century, that land that is now called the United States of America would be changed forever by the English settlements that formed on the east coast. The various groups that embarked on a journey into the New World during the seventeenth would all face similar hardships, and eventually grow into powerful and structured colonies.
The first permanent settlement was Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. The settlers that arrived that spring had no experience in colonization, and the majority had come with the intent of finding gold. Because of the preoccupation in the discovery of gold in the New World, few survived. They experienced many hardships including the harsh North American weather that was foreign to them, and the tedious work building a town from the ground up. The few that did survive relied heavily on the trade with natives, their English goods for food in return. The native tribe neighboring Jamestown was Powhatan and his tribe. Captain John Smith would organize trade with Powhatan and his tribe, and later would betray them by organizing raids on their food supply. After being captured by Powhatan’s tribe, the chief’s daughter Pocahontas saved Smith by laying her head beside his as he was about to be executed. Later, Pocahontas would be captured by the settlers during a raid on her tribe and held for ransom.
Pocahontas chose to stay within Jamestown after she was released and eventually...