The Essence, Effect and Impact of Modern Systems of Higher Education for Socio-economic Development – a Descriptive, Causal and Narrative Study done in 3 Organizations in Kabul
By: Shaima Hussaini
F/Name: Mohammad Salam
ID number: 40814
Class: BBA, E2, Morning
Education as overall has direct impact on promoting the socio-economic development of any country. The Modern Systems of Higher Education came in Afghanistan since Taliban regime collapsed in 1380. It is for one decade that we are experiencing the modern systems of higher education commonly used in private educational sectors. Obviously using of modern and up to date systems or methods of education has great and positive impact on the socio-economic development of a country. It affects all the economical, technological, social, political and legal parts of a society. Higher education is such an imperative and sensitive affair in any society as it leads nations towards higher stages of development. Analyzing the course of a country's development through the elements of higher education namely, the number of higher education institutions, standard of education, aptitude of teachers, number of students in higher education, number of theses being produced every year and the number of research journals published by the higher education institutes makes it easier to gauge the pace of progress. Higher education is also considered a yardstick because the graduates of colleges and universities provide the future leadership in ideological, educational, political and national life. They also play a key role in determining the characteristics of a society, driving it towards rise or fall, or steering it towards right or wrong directions. In this context, a study of evolution of higher education in Afghanistan would be highly significant at this crucial juncture of history when putting Afghan society on the right track of development is in the interest of world community at large. The initiatives in higher education in Afghanistan, their merits and demerits and the current trends that would implicate the future direction of development in Afghanistan also need to be studied and analyzed. Higher Education in the past three decades:
Higher education in Afghanistan: a historical perspective :
Since Ahmed Shah Abdali laid down the foundation of modern Afghanistan in 1747, the country passed through a phase of in-fighting and resistance against British attempts at colonization. The situation prevailed until 1868 when Amir Sher Ali Khan came back into power. During this period, no government tried to establish a system of modern education. Following the old tradition, the people of Afghanistan in the meanwhile kept educating themselves in religious schools and from the lectures of religious scholars and clerics. Thanks to the efforts of Syed Jamaluddin Afghani, modern education got off to a start during the reign of Amir Sher Ali Khan (1863-1866 and 1868-1879). However, no institution of higher education could be established even then. The situation persisted during the reign of three subsequent rulers-Amir Abdul Rehman Khan (1880-1901), his son Amir Habibullah Khan (1901-1919) and his grandson Amir Amanullah Khan (1919-1929). The number of people with higher education in Afghanistan remained marginal comprised of those who either completed their education from Turkey, India and the United Kingdom, or they were Turkish or Indian citizens and moved to Afghanistan during that time. However, some Afghan students were sent to France, Germany, Russia, Turkey and other countries during the reign of Amir Amanullah Khan. Higher education started in Afghanistan in 1932 when Zahir Shah's father Mohammed Nadir Shah (1929-1933) established the faculty of physical sciences in Kabul. It was headed by a Turkish professor, Dr. Faqih Kamil Baig.The same faculty became the foundation stone of the Kabul University in...
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON SCIENCE
Economic development is a broad term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific area. Such effort can involve multiple areas including development of human capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environmental sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy, and other initiatives. Economic development differs from economic growth. Whereas economic development is a policy intervention endeavor with aims of economic and social well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and rise in GDP.
Economic development has several definitions from local to global perspectives. Professor of Economics and Public Policy Alan Deardorff at the University of Michigan as part of his International Economics Glossary calls it: "Sustained increase in the economic standard of living of a country's population, normally accomplished by increasing its stocks of physical and human capital and improving its technology."
How are economic development and science related ?
Both science is very dependent on the economy for its funding, pre-required technology and other...
...parahon called tunbun. They often wear a short vest or jacket over their shirt as well. The shoes recommended to wear can range from a variety of shoes, sneakers, boots, sandals, or even dress shoes. Afghan men also were a piece called a pato. A pato is a shawl like blanket
used for a number of purposes such as a cover for sleeping, a prayer rug, or a cover for their laps and feet while they are sitting down on the ground.
Men that live in Afghanistan also wear something on their head like the women but instead of a burqa the wear a cap or a turban. They wear these pieces daily. The caps that the men wear come in many different colors and patterns to set them apart in the many ethnic groups. Usually the young boys only wear caps while the older men wear caps or turbans. The cap that the men wear usually identifies their social class while there clothing does not. Men and women alike dress the way they do so that they can maintain a level of spirituality and modesty.
Another interesting piece about Afghanistan is the jewelry aspect of their everyday dress. Typically women are the only ones in the culture that really wear jewelry. They do not wear jewelry as a vanity statement piece they wear it to protect them. Afghan women usually wear jewelry based on what it means and what metal it is made out of. Sterling silver is one of the most popular metals to have because it means something very important. Sterling silver...
...The Impact of Modern Day Accounting Systems
Mark A. Croskey
ACC 205 Principles of Accounting I
Instructor: Thomas Amsberry
September 12, 2011
Accounting and bookkeeping haven't always been particularly easy to accomplish. In the past, before there was mechanized bookkeeping, keeping track of financial transactions, and their ultimate effect on a business, was a matter of sorting transactions into the proper category and recording them by hand into paper ledgers, using specialized paper to physically emulate the T-Account concept.
One of the many challenges facing small and medium business owners is the ability to maintain accurate financial records. This is due to their primary focus being on the operations of the business, leaving little time to ensure that all their transactions have been properly and accurately recorded.
In the past, a large company needed a big roomful of accounting clerks to prepare the accounting records manually - and that's a LOT of wages. Using modern computerized software, the same job can be performed by a much smaller group of people, saving a small fortune in wages expense.
Another plus is that modern accounting systems make it easier to operate under a 'perpetual' inventory system - the inventory numbers on the books more closely match the inventory that is actually on hand (theoretically). That's what all those bar codes and item...
...IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Globalization is the buzzword of today. The phenomenon of globalization rapidly swept across the world forcefully and powerfully. Economies of the world are being increasingly integrated as new technology and communication has brought people together. We often hear the phrase that the 'world has become a global village' - which itself signifies how much has changed in the world in the past few decades.
Financial and industrial globalization is increasing substantially and is creating new opportunities for both industrialized and developing countries. The largest impact has been on developing countries, who now are able to attract foreign investors and foreign capital. This has led to both positive and negative effects for those countries. Economically new parts of the world have opened to capitalist activities. The spread of capitalist activities has been part of globalization process which ties up well with the liberals believe in the possibility of progress (Baylis, J., et al. (2008, p. 110). Free trade is the reduction or removal of commercial barriers between countries. This allows a freer flow of labor and goods between member countries in a trade pact. As free trade agreements become more common around the globe, the positive impact on developing countries has been touted as one of their greatest successes. There are several advantages to developing countries that...
...IMPACT OF THE INFORMAL ECONOMY ON DEVELOPMENT.
What is Informal economy?
Simply put the informal economy refers to those economic activities that are neither taxed nor monitored by a government and are therefore not included in that government's Gross National Product (GNP) However in literature this phenomenon is discussed using different concepts such as informal, unofficial, irregular, parallel second underground, underground, grey markets, subterranean, hidden, invisible, unrecorded, shadow, ghosting and moonlighting. Illegal or criminal activities such as drug dealing or prostitution have been excluded from this definition, as have exchanges of unpaid work. My paper is therefore prepared with this omission in mind.
“In many developing countries, unofficial economic activity (that conducted by unregistered firms or by registered firms but hidden from taxation) accounts to between a third and a half of the total. This share declines sharply as the economy develops. Despite the sheer magnitude of this unofficial activity, little is understood about its role in the process of economic development, and in particular about how important “officializing” these hidden resources might be for economic growth.” (Rafael La Porta and Andrei Shleifer pg 1)
Role of informal economy on development
A recent cross-country report presented by authors Rafael La Porta and Andrei Shleifer that...
...Sustainability in higher education
This report is going to determine the sustainability in higher education through address five issues which are population, poverty, environmental degradation democracy, human rights and peace and development, especially in finance discipline. To begin with discuss the definition of sustainability and sustainable development should be concerned. The paper (IISD 2012) outlines sustainabledevelopment (SD) refers to the development that meets human needs and benefits not only for present but also for future generations. Especially, sustainability is widely known in finance area through higher education.
In the case of sustainability in higher education, generally speaking ‘education for sustainability’ (EFS) and ‘education for sustainable development’ (ESD) regards to "the knowledge, skills and values which students are expected to learn" to help them contribute in working place through sustainable ways of living and working(Tilbury, D., Ryan, A, 2011, pp.137-150). Gerald, D., Rolf, J & Stephen M (2005) examined the concept of sustainable development strategy. It emphasizes that education can play a important role in "both raising awareness among young people about sustainable development and giving them the skills to put sustainable development into practice". UNESCO...
IMPACT OF HIGH OIL PRICES ON THE MALAYSIAN ECONOMY
Posted by jamesesz on September 27, 2008 · 2 Comments
The year 2008 has brought to Asia not only the Beijing Olympics games but also a hosts of economic calamities ranging from the spillover effects from the subprime crisis, the food crisis, and more importantly the unprecedented surge in international oil prices. History has shown us from the oil crisis in the 1970s that high oil prices severely affect economies in both the developed and developing countries. This research paper attempts to briefly study reasons for the spike in oil prices and the impact that high energy prices would bring to Malaysia and other Asian economies. Furthermore, knowing the challenges ahead is only part of the whole picture. More importantly, it is the response of the authorities in charge that will determine how well we weather this current crisis.
The end of the cold war, globalization, the rise of China and the rampant spread of information technology set the stage for a long spell of economic growth, high productivity, low inflation, and booming economy for not just the United States but for most of the rest of the world...
...The Impact of Science and Technology to Society
Albert Einstein (1921)
The rapid rise of modern science has created major social problems. Not only has science created profoundly affected man’s material way of life it also offered an equally profound mental upheaval. As resulted from the changes it has effected in man’s rational understanding of his environment and his attitude toward knowledge. Materials life has primarily felt the technological knowledge growing out of industrial application of scientific discoveries, techniques, and methods. At the same time, the increased awareness and the understanding of nature and the enlightened attitude toward knowledge have seriously impinged upon man’s religious faith and outlook.
These effects are by no means unilateral. Technological improvements lead to a society enjoying comfortable life and with more leisure time. Furthermore, these selfsame technological advances could also be motivated in a negative way. Just a single scientific misinterpretation can exterminate the material existence of his “creator” rather than giving him a better life. Amidst technological jungle, what fate one could wait? Science is a good model of logic; it is coherent and often clear. By careful analysis, one could think that man’s way to survival lies in his ability to be a critical juror of this complex mortal world. Independent of his relative reaction his decision will significantly affect the future state of...