Modern education before Independence
Modern education system
Modern education system was implanted by British rulers. Before the advent of British in India, education system was private one. In 1835, Lord Macauley introduced modern education in India. It was the introduction of Wood’s dispatch of 1854, known as Magna Carta of Indian education that laid the foundation of present system of education and changed the scenario. The main purpose of it was to prepare Indian Clerks for running local administration. Under it the means of school educations were vernacular languages, while the higher education was granted in English only. British government started giving funds to indigenous schools in need of help and slowly some of the schools became government aided. Reasons for introducing modern education
Finding it too costly and perhaps practically impossible to import enough Englishmen to man the large and increasing number of subordinate or lower posts in administration, British rulers planned of educating Indians in such a way that they “should through western education get Anglicised in terms of both cultural and intellectual attainments”. Lord Macauley clearly said that, “we must at present do our best to form a class, who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indians in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.” Welcoming modern education
The atmosphere was completely ready for Lord Macauley to lay the foundation of modern education in India by 1835. Missionaries and their supporters as well as National leaders, intellectuals and Reformers not only welcomed but exerted pressure on the company to encourage and promote western education in India. Missionaries believed that modern education would lead the people to adopt Christianity. Humanitarians, intellectuals and nationalist leaders considered modern education “the key to the treasures of scientific and democratic thought of the modern West” and the best remedy for social, political and economic ills of the country. Outcome of modern education
In 1844 through an Declaration knowledge of English was made compulsory for Government employment. The traditional Indian system of education gradually withered away for the lack of official support. The government made English medium schools very popular. English as Official language alienated the masses from the educated Indians. Because of modern education and new employment opportunities, many traditional occupations became obsolete.In near absence of industrial, commercial or social service activity, people in India were forced to depend on modern education and Government jobs for their respectful earning. Modernisation of occupations and industrialisation processes increased role of formal education and training for furthering future prospects of people. The universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were started in 1837 and higher education spread rapidly thereafter. For scientific and technical education, only three Medical Colleges one each at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras was established by 1857. There was only one good engineering college at Roorkee. National leaders, intellectuals and reformers
Modern education not only produced persons to fill the lower levels of administration, as desired by the rulers, but also produced national leaders, intellectuals and reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Dadabhai Naoroji, Ferozeshah Mehta, Gokhale, Gandhi, Jinnah, Ambedkar, Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Moti Lal Nehru, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Patel and many more. They took upon themselves the responsibility to build a modern, open, plural, culturally rich, prosperous and powerful India out of a fragmented, poverty stricken, superstitious, weak, indifferent, backward and inward looking society. In short, they believed that - •Western literature and philosophy would give Indians the understanding of liberal, scientific, democratic...
... Khalil Gibran
In India, illiteracy of a large number of people has turned the visions of ‘Education for All’ into empty dreams. Especially, population explosion has put a heavy pressure on its available infra-structure. Only 64.84% people are literate and 35.16% still illiterate according to 2001 census, (Males – 75.26% and Females – 53.67%). In absolute number, the figure of illiterates is alarming. No nation can afford to have a large number of its population to remain illiterate, ignorant and unskilled.
Education and the masses
In ancient India, education was confined within a very small section of Indian society. It was not so much that common people were debarred or denied access to education because of discrimination, as it was
Method to educate - In the past, because of the method of education, education remained confined within a very small section of the society. In absence of any written material, priestly schools in India had devised a most remarkable and effective system of transferring knowledge to succeeding generations in form of hymns. They restricted it only to those, who possessed brilliant feats of memory and capability to keep its extreme sanctity.
Masses remained away from formal education, even when everything was put together in the epics – ‘Vedas’,...
Student number: 20134571
Science 1 in the Early Years
Assessment: Item 1- Views of teaching and promoting science of young learners
The pedagogy of play can be hard to understand and part of the reason for this is it’s so difficult to explain how children learn by play because play isn’t simply; it is complex. Each child begins their early childhood education with a set of skills and prior knowledge that is influenced by their family, culture and past experiences (Fellows &Oakley, 2010). The past knowledge should become the foundation for developing an understanding of scientific concepts (Duschl, Schweingruber & Shouse, 2007). Children are naturally inquisitive, creative and aware of the world around them (Campbell & Jobling, 2012). Play is an important development tool and an effective way to teach children scientific concepts while using their prior knowledge (Preston, Mules, Baker & Frost, 2007). Learning science through play shows children that science is useful and enjoyable and is a significant aspect of the real world (Bulunuz, 2013). This essay will review teaching science through play, theorists who support play and the way in which the Australian curriculum and EYLF support play pedagogy.
Science and Play
Play pedagogy is a context for learning through which children organise and make sense of their social worlds, as they engage actively with people, objects and representations. Research shows...
...The Day BeforeIndependence
June 25, 1986 was the last day of my childhood. I was 16 years old graduating from high school; the next morning I would be on a train going of to a college to a strange city, all by myself…This scenario might sound very appealing and fairly common to an American, but for a young girl born and raised in the Soviet Union this situation was scary and challenging. In Belarus (part of the former USSR) families stayed close together. Young people especially girls would go to a local college or university and continue living with their parents, until they got married. This kind of life had a lot of predictability, security, and stability. At the age of sixteen I was about to abandon that life and embark on an unpredictable journey to independence. The day before I became independent, the day of the graduation from high school, had also become the day of extreme emotional turmoil for me.
It was a beautiful summer morning on June 25th 1986. The sky was blue, soft morning beams of the sun were passing fluffy rare clouds and warming cooled down over the night ground. Birdswere singing their joyful songs flying in front of my open window on the fifth floor. Everything
outside seemed wonted to celebrate my graduation day, last day of my school life with my
classmates. Life was about to change.
family and friends. I was about to enter new unfamiliar life without my parents in my sight in a...
...Belize has evolved since its official declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom in 1981.Beforeindependence Belize–British Honduras–was a country that was part of an Empire; that was under the rule of Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II. However because of the British strategy of acquiring territories such as Belize, The United Kingdom would feed on Belize’s resources, and manipulate the country. This strategy left Belize crippled and underdeveloped. Prior to its Independence Belize had poor standards of living, poorly equipped schools, and below par social life. However infrastructural and technological changes have proved to be the catalyst that have improved how people live, learn at school, and their social lives. Standards of living in Belize have changed drastically over the years compared to the years beforeindependence.
The standards of living beforeindependence were very low, almost poverty level if you may say so. People still relied on what was available to them in order to try to live a prosperous life. Because of the nature of British Honduras– Belize– at that time development in the country was little or very slow. Most people lived in very poorly constructed houses, with no heed to appearance or color .They were either made of bush sticks or board cabins, that offered no real protection from the weather and its elements....
‘Divide and rule policy” in India before and after the independence
Quite often it is alleged that Indian society is ‘highly stratified’ ‘disintegrated’ and ‘discriminatory’ society. How it had happened, is quite interesting to know. It was not so all the time. Rift has been purposely created in the society of India for political purposes. Why, when, how and by whom rift has been created in Indian society and has pushed the nation on the verge of disintegration?
British domination in India
India was a great centre of attraction for British Empire. It was amazing to see how a small number of British troops led to the downfall of Mughal Empire, achieved the conquest andruled over India for such a long time. For British rulers, India symbolized Imperial grandeur. They believed that Britain’s superpower status for most of the nineteenth century and some of the twentieth depended on their control over India.
Viceroy Lord Curzon had expressed it clearly in 1901, “As long as we rule India, we are the greatest power in the world. If we lose it we shall drop straightway to a third rate power”. Quite early, British realized that as long as they adroitly exploited the religious, linguistic and historical divisions that marked Indian society they were relatively safe.
British rulers were clear and firm about their aims and objectives. British Rulers inflamed the differences, that were already...
...Public education, it can be argued, shapes society, instils social mores and indoctrinates the impressionable with those philosophies the elites value. This essay will focus upon three main areas intrinsic to the education system. These are the social reproduction of ideas, the life chances created and instilled through education, and the socialisation of the individuals undergoing the educational process. Two main sociological perspectives that are useful when studying the education system are Functionalism and Critical Theory, because they focus on macro issues and social structures more than the interactionist perspective.
Functionalists believe that the school system is an agent of social reproduction, which operates to reproduce well integrated, fully functioning members of society (Webb, Schirato and Danaher, 2002: 114). Critical theorists, conversely, hold that education is the most effective mechanism for promoting social change and for giving opportunities to less privileged groups so that they can advance their social standing. However, education usually reproduces existing social divisions, maintaining the relative disadvantage of certain groups (Webb, Schirato and Danaher, 2002: 106). Munro (1994: 108) describes the different approaches by stating that, "functionalists tend to see education as synonymous with socialisation, while a conflict theorist is inclined to...
... How moderneducation kills creativity
The global war for talent proves that it will only get tougher for companies to attract and retain top talent.
Employers need innovative minds, but this talent is increasingly hard to come by, because people are discouraged to think outside the box throughout their lives.
It all starts with our education system, which then influences the way our companies are run, and the way we think, argued Sir Ken Robinson in his wildly-popular TED Talk.
We recently came across a 2012 NPR interview with Robinson, where he spoke about how the current education system chastises those who break out of the mold, because in order to do that, you have to be prepared to be wrong.
In our current system, making a mistake is stigmatized, even though making mistakes and taking chances is the only way we can come up with new ideas. He says that many people lose the fearlessness of their youth as they get older:
"Kids will take a chance. If they don't know, they'll have a go. They're not frightened of being wrong ... What we do know is if you're not prepared to be wrong, you will never come up with anything original. By the time they get to be adults, most kids have lost that capacity ... And we run companies like this ... And now we're running national education systems where mistakes are the worst thing you can make. And the result is we're educating people out of their...
...liberal art educations, and individualized work skills were taught at colleges. Layoffs were also due in part to the globilization of the economy. Cheaper labor can be found in other countries, which results in the closing of American factories or a drastic cut in pay for workers. Corporate downsizing, atomization, and an aging population have also contributed to this change in the type of work available (Rifkin 177). As most Americans used to be in the same economic bracket regardless of their line of work, today a worker's real competitive position in the world economy depends on what kind of job they have (Jacobus 253). Education is the key to creating the worker's demanded from businesses today.<br><br>In aviation and other workplaces today, employers are not only looking for highly skilled workers, but for people who are flexible, work well with others and have good problem solving skills. Colleges must implement new teaching approaches and offer specialized degrees now, to prepare students for the needs of employers in the information-technology age. A workers must be flexible to be able to change and grow with the economy and the needs of employers is very important in today's job market. "With corporate downsizing and restructuring so prevalent, employers are demanding more of their employees. They must be more versatile and multi-task oriented (Schmiedl 29)." Employees must be able to move from one job to another, and learn new tasks...