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Text Preview Fear and Anxiety
A fear is composed of both operant and respondent behavior; typically a person becomes afraid of a particular stimulus or stimulus situation. When the stimulus is present, the person experiences unpleasant bodily responses and (autonomic nervous system arousal- respondent behavior) and engages in avoidance or escape behavior- operant behavior.

A phobia is when the level of anxiety or escape behavior is severe enough to disrupt the person’s life. fears/phobias result of classical conditioning (association)- ‘dog’ =dog bite = fear of all dogs operant conditioning ( fear responses are reinforced by other’s behavior or escape behavior) - scared of school = don’t have to go to school modeling (most common) - mum is scared of spiders so child becomes scared of spiders

→ Characterized by a combination of respondent behaviors, where the bodily response of anxiety is elicited by a particular stimulus, and operant behaviors, where those feelings are reduced or avoided through the person engaging in escape/ avoidance behaviors. →Because both types of behavior are involved, successful treatment involves components that address both the operant and respondent behaviors.

Relaxation Training
“Relaxation is the direct negative of nervous excitement. It is the absence of nerve-muscle impulse.” - Edmund Jacobson Relaxation training procedures are strategies that people use to decrease the autonomic arousal that they experience as a component of the anxiety. Learns specific relaxation behaviors that result in bodily responses that are opposite to the autonomic arousal. Relaxation exercised are designed to, decease heart rate, muscle tension, breathing etc. Once the person learns how to produce these changes in bodily responses they often report a decrease in anxiety

Progressive muscle relaxation: Jacobson (1939)
The person systematically tenses and relaxes each of the major muscle groups in the body. Once they have learned how to tense the muscle group. They then practice relaxing each of the groups. Starting with the first major group (arm) the person tenses for approx. 5 seconds then abruptly releases the tension, focusing on the feeling for approx. 5-10 seconds before moving to the next muscle group. This allows the person to feel the difference between tension and relaxation in the particular muscle group. The person can then use this techniques in real life situation where they start to feel anxious

Muscle Group

Method of Training
Dominant hand & arm
Make a tight fist, curl arm towards shoulder, bend arm to elbow. Non dominant arm

Make a tight fist, curl arm towards shoulder, bend arm to elbow. Forehead & eyes

Open eyes wide and raise eyebrows. Make as many wrinkles on the forehead as possible Upper cheeks & nose

Frown, squint eyes, wrinkle nose
Jaw, lower face neck

Clench teeth, protrude chin. Pull corners of mouth down
Shoulders, upper back

Shrug shoulders and pull shoulder blades back as far as possible Abdomen

Bend forward slightly at waist, protrude stomach, tighten muscles as much as possible Upper Leg
Make muscles hard and push them against each other

Advantages
Lowered blood pressure
Improved concentration
Increased blood flow throughout the body
Reduces symptoms of certain types of chronic pain
Aids in symptom relief for a number of conditions, including headaches, cancer pain, high blood pressure, and digestive disturbances

Diaphragmatic breathing
The person practices breathing deeply in a slow, rhythmic fashion Because anxiety is usually accompanied by shallow, rapid, irregular breathing, diaphragmatic breathing decreases anxiety by replacing this breathing pattern with another one. The person learns to recognize when they are beginning to take shallow rapid breaths when anxiety heightens and the lean how to switch to more relaxed breathing behavior

Advantages
Deep Breathing helps to detoxify the body
Deep... Show More

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