Fear and Anxiety
A fear is composed of both operant and respondent behavior; typically a person becomes afraid of a particular stimulus or stimulus situation. When the stimulus is present, the person experiences unpleasant bodily responses and (autonomic nervous system arousal- respondent behavior) and engages in avoidance or escape behavior- operant behavior.
A phobia is when the level of anxiety or escape behavior is severe enough to disrupt the person’s life. fears/phobias result of classical conditioning (association)- ‘dog’ =dog bite = fear of all dogs operant conditioning ( fear responses are reinforced by other’s behavior or escape behavior) - scared of school = don’t have to go to school modeling (most common) - mum is scared of spiders so child becomes scared of spiders
→ Characterized by a combination of respondent behaviors, where the bodily response of anxiety is elicited by a particular stimulus, and operant behaviors, where those feelings are reduced or avoided through the person engaging in escape/ avoidance behaviors. →Because both types of behavior are involved, successful treatment involves components that address both the operant and respondent behaviors.
“Relaxation is the direct negative of nervous excitement. It is the absence of nerve-muscle impulse.” - Edmund Jacobson Relaxation training procedures are strategies that people use to decrease the autonomic arousal that they experience as a component of the anxiety. Learns specific relaxation behaviors that result in bodily responses that are opposite to the autonomic arousal. Relaxation exercised are designed to, decease heart rate, muscle tension, breathing etc. Once the person learns how to produce these changes in bodily responses they often report a decrease in anxiety
Progressive muscle relaxation: Jacobson (1939)
The person systematically tenses and relaxes each of the major muscle groups in the body. Once they have learned how to tense the muscle group. They then practice relaxing each of the groups. Starting with the first major group (arm) the person tenses for approx. 5 seconds then abruptly releases the tension, focusing on the feeling for approx. 5-10 seconds before moving to the next muscle group. This allows the person to feel the difference between tension and relaxation in the particular muscle group. The person can then use this techniques in real life situation where they start to feel anxious
Method of Training
Dominant hand & arm
Make a tight fist, curl arm towards shoulder, bend arm to elbow. Non dominant arm
Make a tight fist, curl arm towards shoulder, bend arm to elbow. Forehead & eyes
Open eyes wide and raise eyebrows. Make as many wrinkles on the forehead as possible Upper cheeks & nose
Frown, squint eyes, wrinkle nose
Jaw, lower face neck
Clench teeth, protrude chin. Pull corners of mouth down
Shoulders, upper back
Shrug shoulders and pull shoulder blades back as far as possible Abdomen
Bend forward slightly at waist, protrude stomach, tighten muscles as much as possible Upper Leg
Make muscles hard and push them against each other
Lowered blood pressure
Increased blood flow throughout the body
Reduces symptoms of certain types of chronic pain
Aids in symptom relief for a number of conditions, including headaches, cancer pain, high blood pressure, and digestive disturbances
The person practices breathing deeply in a slow, rhythmic fashion Because anxiety is usually accompanied by shallow, rapid, irregular breathing, diaphragmatic breathing decreases anxiety by replacing this breathing pattern with another one. The person learns to recognize when they are beginning to take shallow rapid breaths when anxiety heightens and the lean how to switch to more relaxed breathing behavior
Deep Breathing helps to detoxify the body
...The Acting Life of Miss Brill
Katherine Mansfield gives the reader (us) a brief summary of Miss Brill as an aging Englishwoman who spends the afternoon in a park located in an unnamed French vacation town watching the activities of the people around her. So I naturally wanted to figure out what was meant by “aging”. “Miss” is defined in The American Heritage College Dictionary as “1. used as a courtesy title before the surname or full name of a girl or an unmarried woman. 2. Used as a form of polite address for a girl or young woman: Thanks, miss. 3. A young unmarried woman.” “Aging: 1. The process of growing old or maturing; 2. A process for in parting the properties of age.” So I begin to read with these definitions in mind. As I begin to read I can see that she is not really young.
“The story is told from the third-person limited omniscient point of view. Mansfield allows us both to share Miss Brill’s perceptions and to recognize those perceptions are highly romanticized. This dramatic irony is essential to our understanding of her character. Miss Brill’s view of the world on this Sunday afternoon in early autumn is a delightful one, and we are invited to share in her pleasure: the day “so brilliantly fine,” the children “swooping and laughing,” the band sounding “louder and gayer”(2) then on previous Sundays. And yet, because the point of
view is the third...
...THEME of "Miss Brill"
In the story "Miss Brill," an old, lonely lady spends her Sunday observing people in a park. Although ignored by everyone around her, Miss Brill manages to convince herself that she is really an integral part of the scene and would be missed if she weren't there. Her illusion is shattered by a chance remark at the end of the story, and she returns home, clearly devastated by her new understanding of her place in life. What this story is trying to illustrate is that sometimes people can be happy through living in an illusion. However, this kind of happiness is fragile and can be easily destroyed.
Unfortunately, modern society does not provide a place for everyone. Inevitably, there are those people, often elderly, who become marginalized; they live alone, friendless and mostly ignored. Miss Brill is one of these people, which becomes clear in her lack of communication with the people around her in the park. "They did not speak. This was disappointing, for Miss Brill always looked forward to the conversation. She had become really quite expert, she thought, at listening as though she didn't listen, at sitting in other people's lives just for a minute while they talked around her" (135). The prospect of actually engaging in conversation herself never crosses Miss Brill's mind; she has grown entirely accustomed to being only an observer. Another indication that...
...to live through various means of socialization from the time of our birth . Without this socialization and interaction among each other we can become very disillusioned and confused about how to function as a part of society. One would tend to isolate ourselves, exiled in this place we call the world. In Katherine Mansfield's short story "Miss Brill," one such person, herself a kind of outcast of society, creates a fantasy world in which she is at the center. "Miss Brill" is the story of a woman battling with loneliness. She partakes in a ritual in which every Sunday she would spend the entire afternoon at the local park eavesdropping and observing the people around her. In her mind everyone around her is apart of her unadorned existence when in fact Brill only sits alone seemingly frantically in search of companionship. She scorns anything and anyone that may cause her to realize the truth about her pathetic existence. The story conveys a message, expressed through the character of Miss Brill, that those who do not communicate with others but idealize them, and those who do not act in the real world lose touch with reality.
Miss Brill's character can be described as one of an idealist. The story begins as she prepares herself for her Sunday ritual in which she speaks to herself using words like "sweet" and "dear" (Mansfield 98) to describe her stole, an lifeless object. She also describes the fur as...
...Miss Brill by Katherine Mansfield
Miss Brill, a short story written by Katherine Mansfield, describes an afternoon in the life of a middle-aged spinster who visits the public park on a weekly basis, leading to her reassessment of her view of the world and the secular reality. Though short in form, it is really worth detailed interpretation and appreciation. The author tells us of her character that: “She had become really quite expert, she thought, at listening as though she didn’t listen, at sitting in other people’s lives just for a minute while they talked around her.”(307). It is this very conservation that Miss Brill enjoys listening to that will shatter her illusion.
In trying to fill the void in her life, Miss Brill spends her leisure time, every Sunday, pretending to be part of the lives of the people she encounters. Miss Brill is a school teacher. Her relationship with the English class she teaches is probably very professional. She does not derive any companionship from teaching. Mansfield also tells us that her character reads the newspaper to an old, invalid gentleman four days a week. The old gentleman usually sleeps through the news. Miss Brill’s only other connection to others is that which see gleans through the overheard conversations in the park.
It is autumn and Miss Brill has removed her fur wrap from storage and readied it for her...
...instincts that influence behavior in concert with—and sometimes in opposition to—environmental influences, including economic, social, cultural, and familial influences. Miss Julie, for example, responds partly to her inborn female instinct for male companionship and partly to her environmentally induced hatred of men. Consequently, she both desires and despises Jean, causing her deep internal conflict.
(2) Human beings have no free will, or very little of it, because heredity and environment are so powerful in determining the course of human action.
(3) Human beings, like lower animals, have no soul. Religion and morality are irrelevant. (Strindberg, an atheist when he wroteMiss Julie, later converted to Christianity under the influence of the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg.)
(4) A literary work should present life exactly as it is, without preachment, judgment, or embellishment. In this respect, naturalism is akin to realism. However, naturalism goes further than realism in that it presents a more ....Miss Julie is a tragedy because Miss Julie suffers a downfall (suicide). However, it is not a tragedy in the traditional sense. Here’s why. In a classical Greek play, such as Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex, a character falls to ruin in part because of an error or lapse in moral judgment. But in Strindberg’s play, Miss Julie’s downfall results from the irresistible forces (heredity and environment) acting upon her. It can...
...Miss Havisham is first introduced to the reader when Mr Pumblechook
(Pips Uncle) announces that Miss Havisham Requests Pips presence to
play at her house.
Miss Havisham fits into the main plot because she trains Estella to “
break their hearts.” When Pip sees Estella for the fist time, he
instantly falls in love with her. Miss Havisham sees this and she
encourages Pip to do so. Miss Havisham was also, in Pips eyes, the
cause of his ‘Great expectations’ Miss Havisham may also have been
placed in the novel by Dickens, To explore how the effects of bad
experiences on people. In this case it would be Miss Havisham being
jilted on her wedding day
In the first description of Satis house you get the image of a
dilapidated house that has been abandoned even though there is someone
there still living there. When pip goes to miss Havishams house she
asks him to touch her heart. This according to her is ‘Broken.’ When
Miss Havisham says ‘I sometimes have sick fancies’ this shows that
Miss Havisham is mentally disturbed in the head. Satis house is an old
decaying house, which was turned this way by Miss Havishams neglect.
When Pip returns to miss Havishams she takes him into her wedding
breakfast room. There is a rotting cake in the middle of the table.
This sums up...
Little Miss Sunshine Analysis
Mesa Community College
There are a few different factors that come together and affect a person’s concept of themselves. A person’s own thoughts and interpretations are an important part of what makes that up. Different influences like the culture that we are part of can also shape how we are and how we see ourselves, as well as influences brought on my our close family members and friends. Naturally we also look to those around us to see how we compare in contrast to how they are, and develop out self-concept from that.
In the movie Little Miss Sunshine, the main character is a young girl by the name of Olive who has the aspiration to compete in beauty pageants. From the beginning, the little girl shows to have a positive self-concept of what she can accomplish. Before the family decided to go on the trip, Olive’s dad asked her if she thought she was going to win. She replied that she did, so from that it was decided that they would go. Olive’s self-concept later began to change, and she started to question herself only after some comments that her family made about gaining weight and her ability to win.
Something that is a huge influence on Olive’s self-concept is her family. When the Hoover family was having breakfast at the diner, Olive’s dad took the opportunity to tell her about how she shouldn’t eat ice cream, or else she would get fat. This made a big impact on the way she...
2 February 13
This World Is A Stage
In “Miss Brill” the author Katherine Mansfield creates the metaphor of the world being a stage and the character of Miss Brill being an actress. This illusion can determine her to be a round character because she is afraid of being the person that she isn’t. Miss Brill hides her real emotions by hiding behind a teacher role instead of being true to herself. The characterMiss Brill arrives at a theme of isolationism and abandonment; by acting Miss Brill can be recognized as a round character by having a hidden emotion by acting a certain manner.
To be able to understand why Ms. Brill uses loneliness as a protective wall around her actual personality is because she is afraid of rejection and the reality of denial. “They were all on the stage. They weren’t only the audience, not only looking on; they were acting. – How strange she’d never thought of it like that before! And yet it explained why she made such a point of starting from home at just the same time each week - so as not to be late for the performance.” (Manfield Page 185). This demonstrates the value of Miss Brill having to put on a “performance”, she felt as if she has to act to allow people to accept her as an individual. Miss Brill’s character through-out the story shows a side of loneliness, she does not accept herself for who she is,...