Migrants as activist citizens in Italy
Published on openDemocracy (http://opendemocracy.net)
Migrants as activist citizens in Italy
In 2010 and 2011 migrants behaved like activist citizens throughout Italy, initiating a new cycle of struggles in the crisis of neoliberalism. Their contestation of an exclusionary, racialized and competitive model of society could become a goal shared by migrants and nationals alike.
‘We will be remembered’; whoever wrote this on the wall of an abandoned industrial site near Rosarno, in the southern Italian region of Calabria, did not know how right he would be. The anonymous writer was one of the hundreds of migrants from many African countries working in this region as orange-pickers during the winter. Year after year, they transformed an old olive oil factory into a highly precarious and uncomfortable shelter. The sentence on the wall appears like a message in a bottle, sent before the authorities removed almost all Africans from the town ‘for their own security’. It refers to the tumult  that exploded on 7 January 2010 in Rosarno, where hundreds of migrants rebelled after two of them were injured by three Italian youngsters in a drive-by shooting. The rioting workers set on fire rubbish bins, destroyed shop windows and cars, engaged in urban guerrilla clashes with the police, and finally they became the target of a ‘black man hunt’ unleashed by the resident population: during the same night many migrants were beaten with iron bars and two were shot. In the next three days, with the excuse of protecting them from the rage of Italians, about 2,000 African workers were either moved from the site by the police or fled voluntarily. On 7 January, 2012 many grass-roots associations, anti-racist and social justice movements, collectives of workers and neo-communist parties met in the sites of the unrest and announced the beginning of a new campaign – SOS Rosarno  – against exploitation, underground and criminal economies, and unsustainable projects for local development. The protagonists of those days are especially remembered, not simply because of the explosion of their indignation against systematic Page 1 of 10
Migrants as activist citizens in Italy
Published on openDemocracy (http://opendemocracy.net) racist violence – the shooting was just one of countless acts of oppression against them. The significance of their actions does not only lie in that fact that they revolted against the ‘Ndrangheta (the local Mafia which dominates the fruit and vegetable businesses besides controlling drug and arms trades) and denounced fraud, extortions and killings to the police in a way that Italians have never dared to do. They are remembered chiefly because through their words and acts they called into question the dominant public discourse on immigration as a security and border control problem. Their actions were an unexpected protest against the hypocrisy of an affluent (formally democratic) society based on the de facto legalized exploitation of disposable people. They spoke out against their inferiorization through institutional and everyday ‘democratic racism’. They contested the dominant discursive frames that depicted them either as a threat, a resource, or victims of adverse circumstances. They proved that they could claim and exercise rights even if they were not entirely entitled to them, according to positive law or common sense. They collectively demonstrated that it is possible to stand up and ask for respect even when you live under the continuous risk of being deported. The highly political nature of those events was so clear and their potential for emulation so explosive that a former Italian Minister of Interior and member of the virulently anti-immigrant Northern League, tried to restore the mainstream view affirming that: ‘There’s a difficult situation in Rosarno, like in other places, because for years illegal immigration – which feeds criminal...
...Easter in Italy
Easter is celebrated differently throughout the world. In Italy it is celebrated differently in each region within the country. Easter is known as Buona Pasqua in Italy. I am going to compare and contrast the different ways of celebrations in a few cities in Italy. I am also going to compare and contrast the types of Easter meals that are made during this holiday.
In Florence, Italy Easter Sunday starts its’ celebration at the Piazza Del Duomo every year. For the past 350 years in Florence, there is a huge and decorative wagon that’s about three stories high and built in 1622. It is always pulled by decorated oxen’s in garlands. It is pulled between the Baptistery and Cathedral. The explosion of the cart is normally started at eleven in the morning while the procession starts at ten in the morning. It is free for anyone to attend. The cart is usually accompanied by drummers, flag throwers, and figures dressed in historical costume as well as city officials and clerical representatives. Inside the Duomo, people are singing “Gloria.” There is a dove shaped rocket that is known as the “Colombina” (symbolizing the Holy Spirit) and it is usually lit by the Archbishop at this time. When it is lit, it flies towards the cart filled with fireworks and collides setting off an extravagant display of fireworks. The people of Florence believe that if all works well with the explosion of the cart,...
...You can see the influence of the traditional and Mediterranean culture on the inhabitants of central and southern Iraq. In southern Italy, most people are more brown and darker hair. In the north, however, they tend to be taller, blonder hair and lighter eyes.
If from north to south, the Italians have one thing in common-a love of life-they are also sociable and have a passion for what they do. They talk a lot and pretty gesture. The Italians are not afraid of showing emotions, give hugs, kisses ...
Most Italians are Roman Catholic, the Church's influence in their lives and in their art has been evident. Most of the sculptures, and paintings, have been based on religion, and religious events.
Italians are proud of their heritage and artistic legacy, is worthy to note that Italy has given the world a large part of the great masters of painting, sculpture and architecture, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, to name few. The museums and churches are the place where he lives part of that legacy.
The Italians always work hard, but also have to say that they, better than anyone, know how you have to relax at certain times. In most cities it is normal to work five days a week and a half Saturday, and it is normal also catch a big break each day for lunch, take a nap and get back to work.
The main meal, which is prepared and savored worship, normally takes place in the afternoon. It is a very social event and family is the main...
The music of Italy ranges across a broad spectrum of opera and instrumental classical music and a body of popular music drawn from both native and imported sources. Music has traditionally been one of the cultural markers of Italian national and ethnic identity and holds an important position in society and in politics.
Instrumental and vocal classical music is an iconic part of Italian identity, spanning experimental art music and international fusions to symphonic music and opera. Opera is integral to Italian musical culture, and has become a major segment of popular music. The Neapolitan song, canzone Napoletana, and the cantautori singer-songwriter traditions are also popular domestic styles that form an important part of the Italian music industry, alongside imported genres like jazz, rock and hip hop. Italian folk music is an important part of the country's musical heritage, and spans a diverse array of regional styles, instruments and dances.
I would divide Italian popular music into four different categories (that overlap to some extent).
Singer-songwriters (Known as "cantautori" )
Their own styles
Italy is the home of opera music. Opera music was created in Italy in the 17th century by...
...There are many negative causes and difficulties migrants face when traveling to America, and even when they reach their destination. Such as the lack of equal rights for immigrants in America, human trafficking, and irregular migration. A cause of these people having to move is the amount of violence in their home countries and forced gang labor.
First, there is a growing problem of unequal in America for undocumented immigrants who earn their stay by contributing to the overall economy. In “Caught in the Middle: Asian Immigrants Struggle to Stay in America”, it explains that the children who are undocumented, can’t use their scholarship money to get into college. These parents of these children also have lingering fear of being found out and being deported away from their children. This causes many problems for the family including heavy emotional stress and separation.
Human trafficking and irregular migration are also a problem for migrants who are on the run. People who migrate run the risk of being kidnapped and may be sold into slavery. Thankfully, IOM is informing people about these dangers, as can be read in "Raising Awareness of the Dangers of Human Trafficking and Irregular Migration". It also explains how women and those with low intelligence are susceptible.
Finally, the case of many migrations is forced gang labor. Many children are being forced to do the "dirty work" for these gangsters in their home countries. That's...
Economists that are known as Activist support a significant role for the government. These Activist monetary policies are policies whose purposes were to keep output and employment close to their full level at all times. Individuals who supported Activists believed that there was long run trade-off between inflation and unemployment explained by the Phillip curve. What the monetary authorities according to this view do is that they could maintain a temporary lower rate of employment by accepting some degree of inflation. However, the activist monetary policies of the 1970s and 1980s did not only fail to deliver the promised benefits, but also helped to generate inflationary pressures that could be unresponsive only at high economic cost. Today the activist’s monetary policy is not effective. Majorly, it was accepted that due to the dynamic inconsistency problems, there must be some restrictions on the Central Bank’s activity, pressures of the politicians or the private sector on the Central Bank to stimulate the economic activity may result in instability of prices. Monetary policy activism is measured by the cumulative response to both expected and actual inﬂation rates.
Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of central banks have adopted an inﬂation-targeting framework, in which explicit inﬂation objectives have been set up. By developing a formal theoretical model within...
...Italy witnessed significant widespread civil unrest and political strife in the aftermath of World War I and the rise of the Fascist movement led by Benito Mussolini which opposed the rise of the international left, especially the far-left along with others who opposed Fascism. Fascists and communists fought on the streets during this period as the two factions competed to gain power in Italy. The already tense political environment in Italy escalated into major civil unrest when Fascists began attacking their rivals, beginning on April 15, 1919 with Fascists attacking the offices of the Italian Socialist Party's newspaper Avanti!.
Violence grew in 1921 with Italian army officers beginning to assist the Fascists with their violence against communists and socialists. With the Fascist movement growing, anti-fascists of various political allegiances (but generally of the international left) combined into the Arditi del Popolo (People's Militia) in 1921. With the threat of a general strike being initiated by anarchists, communists, and socialists, the Fascists launched a coup against the Italian government with the March on Rome in 1922 which pressured Prime Minister Luigi Facta to resign and allowed Mussolini to be appointed Prime Minister by the King Victor Emmanuel III. Two months after Mussolini took over as Prime Minister, Fascists attacked and killed members of the local labour movement in Turin in what became known as...
...spaced out and there is a lot of things to observe. My confidence level at this time is high, I am more than ready to find my own way back it may take a little time, but it would be worth it. Gives me some more time view the scenery Italy has to offer. I know all of the food will taste good and I won’t be disappointed it will be authentic Italian food all fresh made from scratch that will be better from nowhere else but Italy. After my stay inItaly I was really surprised at how all the sites were it was nothing like I expected it was better this is a trip I would love to take again. Last year my school went on a two-week trip to Italy.We flew to Milan, and went to Rome, Florence, Assisi, Capri and Bologna.We visited many historical sites, including St. Peter's Cathedral, theStatue of David and the home of Marco Polo. We ate the best pizza I evertasted; the crust was very thin and really cheesy. My favorite city isVenice, the city surrounded by water. When we arrived I was madespeechless by the romance of the city. The people were beautiful and thecity made me want to fall in love. I have grown up in a Spanish-speakingfamily, and since Italian and Spanish are similar, I could order mymeals and speak with people.
I fell head over heels for Italy,especially Venice. According to the famous legend, because I threw acoin into the Trevi Fountain in Rome, I am destined to return.
...certificate to that effect by the Secretary of State for
Culture, Media and Sport under Schedule 1 of the Films Act 1985. Such a certificate may either
be interim, if the film has not been completed, or final, if it has. The Secretary of State certifies
films on the advice of the UK Film Council.
There are three ways in which a film can qualify as British. It may:
Satisfy the cultural test in Schedule 1 of the Films Act 1985. This considers four aspects of
the cultural contribution of a film:
Source: HM Revenue and Customs at http://hmrc.gov.uk/films/guidance/index.htm
Economic Contribution of the UK Film Industry
Cultural content (eg whether it is set in the UK or its lead characters are UK citizens or
Cultural contribution (eg whether the film represents/reflects a diverse British culture,
British heritage or British creativity)
Use of cultural hubs (eg in post-production or music)
Use of cultural practitioners (eg the director, lead actors and so on)
Meet the terms of one of the United Kingdom‟s bilateral co-production treaties; or
Meet the terms of the European Convention on Cinematic Co-Production.
In all cases, the film must be formally certified to qualify for Film Tax Relief.
The channels of economic impact
There are many channels through which the core UK film industry makes a contribution to the
UK economy. This contribution includes the following...