The Medina Charter: Political or Tribal
“The Medina Charter”, while trying to rise above tribal customs, was unable to form a new political entity, ultimately falling prey to fundamental tribal customs. Evidence of the new charter being tribal based is seen through statements numbered twenty-one, twenty-three, and forty-four. The crux of these statements highlight the fact that the structure of the “Medina Charter” was nothing more than a social contract formed around a religiocentric tribal system. Statement twenty-one, “ Whoever is convicted of killing a believer without good reason shall be subject to retaliation unless the next of kin is satisfied (with blood-money), and the believers shall be against him as one man and they are bound to take action against him.”1 This statement of the charter directly reflects the tribal idea of retaliation within clans and tribes. A charter should reflect political alliances and defensive measures or negotiations, instead addressed an attack through a primitive eye for an eye rebuttal. Regardless that it addresses compensation through “Blood-money”, but such compensation diminishes the importance of a political hierarchy and governance. Further on within the charter it reads that, “ Whenever you differ about a matter it must be referred to God or Muhammad.”2 In a society where differences are resulted by the word of God or a leading prophet, like Muhammad, it takes away any political significance due to lack of political strategy. A political entity must have a structure and order to govern itself. In the newly established Medina Charter it is left up to God and Muhammad as the clans of the tribe would leave their matters up to the most prominent ruling tribesman. A final element in the charter that reflects tribal values as opposed to a political entity was in statement forty-four, “The contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack on Yathrib.”3 This statement could be seen as a political...
...Mohammed in Mecca and Medina
Mohammed had very different experiences in Mecca at the beginning of the Islamic religion than he did in Medina. The people in Mecca reacted very harshly to Mohammed’s preaching. His converts were slow and limited to certain people. While in Medina, after he left Mecca with his people, he was more accepted by the Medinians. He was needed by the people in Medina to bring peace and some form of law.
At the beginning of the Islamic religion when Mohammed was trying to preach and gain followers in Mecca, the resistance to him was strong by the rich merchants. They did not want him to be around because they were afraid that his teachings would interfere with the flow of the many gods in Mecca and trade. At the time, Mecca was a city of forty thousand people, it was the center of trade. Islam was against all other religions and gods that were being worshipped in Mecca. Most of the converts were old people, sick, and his family. The men against Mohammed feared that he would ruin the peace and society of the area. Mohammed was protected by his uncle, Abu Talib, who was the leader of the Hashimite Klan. No one was able to touch him while Abu Talib was alive. To force Mohammed and his followers away the other leading people in Mecca imposed and economic boycott on Mohammed and anyone who associated with him.
The conditions for Mohammed and his people were...
...1. Is your charter party a “berth” or a “port” charter party?
The “SHELL VOY 5” Voyage Charter Party is a port charter party. A berth is a specific place within the port, the place where the vessel will be an arrived ship and she will be securely moored and will make the loading or discharging operations, in the charter party is not available any information with all this above.
Also the commencement of laytime in a berth charter party could not start until the vessel has arrived at the specific berth that specified in the charter party. In this charter party, it is clear that at the Clause 13 (1)(a), 13(2), the vessel will be an arrived vessel, and the commencement of the laytime start, once the vessel arrives at the confines of the port. Also, at the “SHELL VOY 5” Clause 13 (1)(a) line 187 after the correction from the VOYAGE PARTY TERMS Part II 13(1), refers that time is to commence whether vessel at berth or not (WIBON).
WIBON convert a berth charter party to a port charter party. In case that the vessel arrives to the port of loading or discharging and there is no berth available for operation, the vessel will remain in a designated waiting area inside port limits and from this position, the Master or the Shipowner can tender a valid Notice of Readiness to the charterers and the commencement of the laytime calculation will...
...March 20 2013
Charter Schools The New Version Of Public Schools
As consumers we constantly search for the best quality in products that will satisfy our needs whether is on groceries, electronics or clothes, an if we can’t find satisfaction on local shops or markets we tend to research until we satisfy our desire or pockets. However, when it comes to education we are used to think that what we are offered by traditional school system is quialty by nature. As for education in a new era of technology and virtual classrooms, the budget cuts towards Education have led communities to find a new way to raise their voices toward education system. The subject of charter schools is not new to American culture anymore, as disscussions and controversies have arise about the economical impact caused by charter schools towards public schools. This has left doubts and disavowals about the benefits of a new and dynamic educational system. Although public school system oppose to the develepment of charter school systems, studies have shown that charter schools can be succesfully engaging projects that provide reliable education alternative to communities when properly manage.
In addition to controversies and arguments presented by public schools vs charter school systems, Gary Warth from San Diego U-T reports that at the Charter School Conference that took place on San Diego,...
As of the 2010-2011 school year, our country had a total of nearly 99,000 public schools; these elementary, middle, and high schools all operate with the help of tax dollars. Most of them are traditional schools with educational standards set by each state. Best of all, the education is free. Because public schools are reliant on federal, state, and local tax dollars, funding can be cut. Also, public schools have to follow state guidelines on what they can teach and how children are evaluated.
Charter Schools are like an institutional hybrid. Like traditional public schools, charter schools are free, and they can’t discriminate against students because of their race, gender, or disability. However, parents must usually submit a separate application to enroll a child in a charter school, and like private schools, spaces are often limited. Charter schools are independently run, and some are operated by for-profit private companies. However, charter schools are still funded by government coffers and accountable to the government body — be it state, county, or district — that provides the charter. (Many successful charters do substantial additional fundraising as well.) If a school is mismanaged or test scores are poor, a charter school can be shut down.
In order to start a charter school, parents, community leaders,...
A charter schools is a new or converted public schools that are started by parents seeking another alternative to other existing schools in the area. Charter schools have been developed to serve a particular mission such as on art, or with a particular ethnic emphasis. Charter schools are still public schools. However, there is strict accountability to maintain high standards and charter schools are given freedom from many of the regulations that apply to other public schools, which allows for greater flexibility and innovation in the classroom (INCS).
Charter schools are helping in closing the achievement gap that often happen in traditional public schools. They are raising the bar of what is possible and what should be expected in public education. Charter schools are effective for lower income and lower achieving students and aide in shattering low expectations and breaking through long-standing barriers that have prevented large numbers of students from underserved communities from achieving educational success. Studies have been shown some show charters outperforming traditional public schools. Compared to students in the matched public school, charter students are 5.2 percent more likely to be proficient in reading and 3.2 percent more likely to be proficient in math on their state's exams (Hoxby, p.1).
One of the many benefits of...
...1. Put the goal as make the Lake Eola Charter School as a K-8 center of education excellence 14 years ago.
First year: Convert the old parking garage to school. She thought that it is better to build the school on the road rather than build in isolated place. They used Lake Eola park as library, research, reading, downtown architecture for history and geometry lessons.
Second year: They concentrated in foundation of LECS.
Third year: Open school and take the first class without textbook, let the students use curriculum utilizing resources like web sites and practical exercises.
And rest for the year: Continue strengthen the curriculum, find new faculties and expand the school as high school.
There are some troubles in public school in America today because of the creation of charter schools. Charter school gets the funds from government but they operate individually as nonprofit organization.
They persuade the parents to select the charter school. As the result 350,000 families are approach to the charter school waiting list and 37% of the teachers in public school also preferred chartered school while 31% was opposed to them.
2. They let the students to use the public Resources because they don`t have any libraries and research rooms.
3. Utilize qualitative and quantitative analyses to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that LECS faced...
...Road To Success or Destruction for A Charter School
Jean M. Smith
MGT 330: Management for Organizations
Instructor Sheila Fry
November 19, 2012
Working in education is very interesting and also rewarding. Education is the backbone to society, yet is often taken for granted and underappreciated. School districts are just like a big organization or conglomerate, and are run like a business. Charter schools are slightly different than independent school districts, in that they are usually much smaller. However, one can really see the five functions of management at work in a charter school; planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Of the five functions of management, planning is the single most important function of management that affects the outcome of any organization. Charter schools are required to have their goals and how they plan to achieve those goals, written out and presented to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) in order to be granted a charter to start the school. Therefore, planning is the key.
Koinonia Community Learning Academy (KCLA), is a fairly new charter school in the heart of Third ward in Houston, Texas. This is its third school year and I just came aboard in July. Immediately I could tell that the planning function was not well thought out or executed; as a matter of fact, it appeared non-existent. When starting a school...
...Professor: Paul Catterson
Composition 1280, 63
April 15, 2013
Charter Schools the New Reform
Charter schools have been emerging recently all over the United States of America. This is a major issue for the public school system. Parents, teachers, and students need to understand what the growth of charter schools means to the school system as a whole. In the end, it is the death of free education as we know it. The long-term effect thatcharter schools will have on public education defers from the original idea of progressiveness. Charter schools promised to be the necessary change to the drowning public school system through innovation, creative teaching, and low class size (Weingarten 41). These teachers ran facilities that were to reach out to at risk students, have become a means of privatizing education. “It has become impossible to separate the rapid expansion of charter networks from efforts to privatize public education” (Davis 6).
There are over 59 charter schools opened in Chicago in the name of reform, there are plans to be more. Charter schools are publicly owned, but privately operated, facilities that take much needed resources from public schools. However, the rise of charter schools has done a poor job in satisfying the promise of restructuring and providing choice to parents. Charter schools have led to...