I certify that ‘Medical Advancement in Reproductive Health and the Law in Kenya in Relation to Human Dignity and Public policy’ is my own work and that all sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references. That these work either in part or wholly have never been presented anywhere else for academic assessment or award.
_________________________ _________________________ MWAVICHI MWENDE MELLODY Date REG NO: 1018642
This project has been submitted for examination with my approval as the Supervisor
______________________________ _____________________________ DR. AGO JERRY MADAKI (PhD) Date
________________________ _______________________ HEAD OF DEPARTMENT Date
To my Sponsors and my Superior General, Sr. Prof. Ann Nasimiyu, whose tireless labour to make me a success will forever be engrained in my heart,
To Little Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi, my parents, brothers, sisters, who have constantly instilled in me a sense of belonging and the desire to reach this height,
To my close circle of friends and my classmates; your efforts to make me a success will forever be remembered,
To all Kenyans who have relentlessly fought for Human Dignity and Medical ethics.
This work is both a reminder and commemoration of the inputs of many people. It has taken one academic semester of hard work, sacrifice and relentlessness for this project to be completed. Without the strength and protection of the Almighty God over my life, this work would definitely not have seen the light of the day. I thank Almighty God for many blessings and not only for success of this work, but my entire life. May your name be glorified always! AMEN! Without the generous contribution of my sponsors, Sr. Prof Ann Nasimiyu, and Little Sisters this work may not have been completed. Thank you for sacrifices you made to ensure I complete my studies. I will forever be indebted to the supervisor of this project, Doctor Agbo Jerry Madaki of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), for his patience and invaluable comments at every stage of this work. Dr Madaki, without despising my academic confusion and ignorance, helped this work to take a new direction, courtesy of the able leadership and supervision of the supervisor who, in spite of his busy schedule of lectureship and research with Strathmore University found time to advise and encourage me and comment on the drafts of this work. While I am grateful to him, shortcomings, errors and omissions in this work are mine and the Promoter must be absolved from any responsibility. Likewise my parents, Mr. & Mrs. Mwavichi, who stood by to ensure my success, to be acknowledged. May the Almighty God bless them with long life and energy to see and experience that which He has kept in store for them. In addition, I owe gratitude to Bro Benson Mapunda, OFM Conv., my brothers Ben, Alex, and Nico my sisters Pam, Eunice, and Blantine who were there for me, supported me and encouraged me.
Mellody Mwende Mwavichi
Catholic University of Eastern Africa, July 2014
This study is entitled ‘Medical Advancement in Reproductive Health in Relation Human Dignity and Public Policy’ The purpose of this project is to investigate the legal, ethical and moral consequences of new reproductive services in relation to public policy and human dignity. The paper starts by examining how infertility was dealt with by traditional Kenyan societies...
...in physical activity and behaviour. Gray’s study on the relationship between Anxiety and Impulsivity and the effects of sensitivity to punishment, sensitivity to reward clarify the impact of sensitivity to reward and changes in personal expression (Gary, 1982, 1982). A. Cooper & R. Gomez (2008) also found that there is systematically association between sensitivity to reward and increase in physical activity. The behaviour inhibition model illustrates how brain structure structures influences sensitivity to reinforcing event within individual and control the daily participation to different events (Gary, 1982, 1982). The behaviour inhibition system is used to compare the relation, thus taking control of behaviour in response to signals of punishment, basically frustrate non-reward, and novel stimuli. In relation to Gary’s conceptual system, behaviour approach in response to signals of reward or punishment and this assist us in comprehending the differences in functional capacity of the behavioural activation system are related to the dimension of personality traits (Gable, 2000). It was hypothesized that sensitivity to reward will increase students’ engagement in physical activity and sensitivity to punishment will make students more sensitive less luckily to engage in physical activity. There are correlation coefficients between Sensitivity to reward and total minutes each student walks per/week. High positive sensitivity reward will result in...
...P2 Outline how key legislation, policies and procedures in relation to health, safety and security influence health and social care delivery
Legislation is defined as the processor act of making law or a set of laws by the governing body of the country. They are set in place in every work setting to ensure the health and safety of the people within the area. Without these laws there would be many accidents that could harm both the employee and employer.
Safety (General food hygiene) Regulations 1995
This act ensures that all food is handled correctly, the area where food is prepared must be clean, hands must be watched, hair should be covered and separate work areas should be used to prevent contamination of cooked and raw food. Following this regulation is especially important in health and social care settings such as schools, where young children are especially vulnerable to illness. All equipment, such as chopping boards and knives should be cleaned after every use to prevent contamination. Food staff should be well trained and know that food should stored and packed separately to prevent contamination. The Safety Regulation act simply enforces that all food should be prepared, stored and transported as safely and as hygienically possible.
Food Safety Act 1990
The food safety act of 1990 ensures that all food is not tampered with anyway that could damage the...
...Our existence as human being is complementary with our missions or goals in life. It somehow tells us what we want, what we need, and what we aspire of in due period of time. Personally, I do believe that those reasons of our existence, being alive, here and now are primarily based on that goal. Unless we might say, it is the need of the rope. Stop! And life is just until there. Absolutely, it could not be. If then, one might be foolish to do or to be such. Most probably, the way we crave for something that will fulfill our existence could be based on palpable experience, external things. In usual and plebeian way of life, it is actually true and might be for it manifests giving value by fulfilling all the potentialities that we have given by Someone’s gift of life.
Good looks, money, material possession, fame and popularity are maybe our external or sentient goals in life. It seems to be appearing temporarily in our world but then its may sometimes our source of survival. If we are just contented with what we have and what we are, it can manifest a realm of mediocrity. We want to have good looks since we have given the nature that can be possibly developed to somewhat superficially better or best. It is our natural inclination to have such, for it is our nature. It would be irrational for us to neglect to become what nature has meant us to become. So, be human in nature because we are human beings. We want that money and...
...Beneficiary- A beneficiary is person/group that receives profits or benefits, in other terms, it is a person who will be the recipient of funds under an insurance policy or trust.
2. Premium- This deals with insurance, and it is the amount of money paid/ be paid by the policyholder for coverage under a specific contract, such as Medicaid and other health insurance plans.
3. medically necessary- medical treatment that is deemed necessary under a certain practice, this is a term that is often used by insurers
4. deductibles- A deductible is the amount of money in which the person who is insured by a particular insurance company is reliable for before the insurance company makes a payment. This usually is in times of injury, and things of that nature.
5. copayments/coinsurance- This is the amount of money in which you pay a doctor’s office based on the coverage of your health insurance. This is also a contributory payment by someone, (employer) towards the payment of health insurance
6. asymmetric information- This is when one party has better/ reliable information than the other. This therefor causes and imbalance in power. An example of course is Republicans and Democrats, there will never be a balance on their ideas.
7. pre-existing condition- this is a medical condition that started before a person’s health insurance went into effect.
Questions to answer
Nowadays humandignity is everywhere, to the public place, to the political, economic, social or medical concept. Dignity is defined as a moral, legal, ethical or political term that means a being has an innate right to be treating equitability.
Every human being has the basic right of equality, respect, freedom, acceptance, and to think, express his moral beliefs. According to human rights doctrine, “Humandignity is a universal, indivisible, independent, and interconnected concept”. “Humandignity is also an open concept. The meaning varies with the development of the apparatus of human rights protection” (Buijsen, M, 2010). Humandignity involves respect through the society and the culture because people come from different universes as families, countries, and religions so their beliefs could make up different system of morals.
My essay will be examined by exploring two key perspectives on the issue: First it will be on the Dignity and inequality. This part underlines the notion of dignity at the centre of health care and how actions can improve health in an ethical framework. This perspective raises fundamental questions around dignity, inequality and...
...From the Catechism of the Catholic Church
2270 Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. From the first moment of his existence, a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person - among which is the inviolable right of every innocent being to life.72
Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you.73
My frame was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately wrought in the depths of the earth.74
2271 Since the first century the Church has affirmed the moral evil of every procured abortion. This teaching has not changed and remains unchangeable. Direct abortion, that is to say, abortion willed either as an end or a means, is gravely contrary to the moral law:
You shall not kill the embryo by abortion and shall not cause the newborn to perish.75
God, the Lord of life, has entrusted to men the noble mission of safeguarding life, and men must carry it out in a manner worthy of themselves. Life must be protected with the utmost care from the moment of conception: abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes.76
2272 Formal cooperation in an abortion constitutes a grave offense. The Church attaches the canonical penalty of excommunication to this crime against human life. "A person who procures a completed abortion incurs excommunication latae sententiae,"77 "by the very commission of the offense,"78...
...This publichealthpolicy paper will discuss and outline the Affordable Care Act (ACA) as well as barriers and controversies surrounding the policy and its relevance in nursing profession. The ACA will eventually affect everyone. Statistics reflecting United States health outcomes have proven the need for the initiation of policy formation within the United States healthcare system. “In March 2010, President Obama signed into law a comprehensive health reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA).” (Estes, Chapman, Dodd, Hollister, Harrington, 2013, p. 144) The ACA promotes preventive care—including related services and family planning—that should result in improved health outcomes and increased more accessibility and affordability for many Americans (Health & Human Services). Looming aspects of health care act will not only assist with issues of health care access, but also create greater accountability for practicing clinicians that should result in improved outcomes.
Access issues such as the lack of health insurance and being underinsured, can be exacerbated by the current shortage of health professionals that exists in many disadvantaged areas. Some physicians and other medical providers may have the unwillingness to...
...The Health Problem
Hepatitis C virus affects over 3 million Americans but studies indicate that 75% of those people infected are unaware of the presence of the disease. Estimates indicate that approximately 150,000 in the US will die from liver cancer and liver disease stemming from viral hepatitis within the next 10 years. According to the CDC, of the 3.5 million people in this country that have the disease, 75% of them are between the ages of 47-67, but unfortunately most of these people are not aware of it (Gravitz 2011). It can remain undetected for many years also due to the fact that it is only identified by one specific test. As the government becomes aware of the epidemic health care issues affecting our community, focus needs to be directed toward new measures and new ideas geared towards the early identification and early treatment of this prevalent disease. New programs need to be established that incorporate the idea that treatment costs in the early stages will prevent increased costs and treatment in the future. Preventing the disease from progressing to advanced stages can decrease the need for aggressive costly treatment as being the only option remaining. According to Soler (2012), a documented vulnerable population within the Miami-Dade area is baby-boomers born between the years of 1945-1965, that’s why the Community health initiative we are proposing will commit to raising awareness of the need of testing for...