Media Essay 1
Topic 2: With reference to the hacking scandal in the UK and the current debates about the Media Appeals Tribunal in South Africa, discuss the merits and demerits of statutory regulation versus self-regulation for the media.
Regulation in the media is a hotly debated topic, especially in light of recent scandals, namely the UK hacking scandal, and more locally, the issues surrounding the Media Appeal Tribunal in South Africa. With the advances in private investigation technologies, the ease in which accessing private information increases and matters that were intended to be private become public domain. This essay will look at whether, in today’s age, where information is on such high demand, and the tools needed to get otherwise inaccessible information so readily available, self-regulation in the media is enough to prevent illegal practices, or whether stricter rules and policies need to be introduced. Balancing media regulations with freedom of speech is the overriding problem with this debate. On the one hand, there is a regulation process whereby parliament appoints a regulatory leader, or group of individuals, to act as a regulator of journalists and journalistic practices. That group or leader is also given jurisdiction in terms of fining, reprimanding and jailing those journalists if they are found to have infringed on the regulations established. This form of media regulation, known as statutory regulation, is frowned upon as being undemocratic as it hinders the rights of expression of journalists and the rights to information of the consumers. The second form of regulation to be discussed in the essay is self-regulation. Although self-regulation is the more democratic of the two types, there are some draw-backs. Self-regulation requires the journalists, themselves, to commit to ethical reporting that is fair, accurate and not harmful; the problem there being that a journalist might report on something that he or she thinks is fair...
...demerits of self-regulation. Relevant examples will be cited that illustrate the points raised. Appropriate definitions of the key words will also be provided. The terms that will be defined are regulation, self-regulation, demerits and merits. The cases that have been taken up by the Voluntary Media Council of Zimabawe will be included at the end of the discussion.
What is regulation?
The first explanation is from Ogus (1994) who quotes Selznick (1985) as saying that “Regulation, is “sustained and focused control exercised by a public agency over activities that are valued by a community.” The definition gives the state or government all the power to do what they deem is best for the public at large. The second meaning of one of our key terms is from Black who offers an account of three descriptions of regulation often propounded in literature. She suggests that: “In the first, regulation is the promulgation of rules by government accompanied by mechanisms for monitoring and enforcement, usually assumed to be performed through a specialist public agency.” In the second, “it is any form of direct state intervention in the economy, whatever form that intervention might take.” “In the third, regulation is all mechanisms of social control or influence affecting all aspects of behaviour from whatever source, whether they are intentional or not.”...
...MEDIA NEGATIVE ASPECT
Opening: Let me begin by stating that all in the world is not as you have been told. The old saying that "truth is stranger than fiction" couldn't be more accurate, for we have been deceived on such a grand scale that most would have a difficult time in comprehending the full extent.
The behind the scenes machinations of big money and politics are so well hidden from most of the population, that if people actually knew how things were really run, we would quite literally have a second revolution overnight. Henry Ford knew this well when he said, "It is well enough that people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning."
Most people who read this might have a hard time fathoming how an entire nation could be so well deceived, but it's really not that hard when you understand the inner workings and hierarchy of an overly revered media in which we place our blind trust.
The truth is not as you know it. Our faith in the media myth has been our Achilles heel.
Many have realized long ago that our politicians will lie to us at the drop of a hat, but most have no clue that our news media lies and deceives us just as much, if not more so.
We have been deceived by our media to such an extent, mostly because people are too trusting of our news system. They very...
...checking the phone messages and inadvertently deleting them. This was when the public became aware of an ongoing investigation into a scandal that had started years before.
Every corporation faces ethical decisions on a daily basis, including the news media. While a news outlet may not have to worry about consumer safety or environmental factors as much as a factory or another type of company, unethical practices do occur. The way in which information is obtained is highly regarded ethical practice in the journalism world. Hacking into cellphones and voicemail boxes is not only considered wrong, it is illegal.
Corporate intelligence is the collection and analysis of information on markets, technologies, customers, and competitors, as wells as on socioeconomic and external political trends (Ferrell, 2011). Ethical corporate intelligence can include companies using secret shoppers to price competitors, focus groups to learn what is popular among certain demographics, or obtaining information through public sources such as court records, libraries, or sanctioned interviews. Corporate intelligence can be used in an unethical way as shown by the News of the World. Private investigators hired by the company and journalists on payroll were actively eavesdropping and hacking voicemail passcodes to get the scoop on stories.
The News of the World scandal originally came to light in 2005 when Buckingham Palace...
Designing a research project takes time, skill and knowledge. With Qualtrics survey software, we make the survey creation process easier, but still you may feel overwhelmed with the scope of your research project.
Here are 5 common errors in the research process.
1. Population Specification
This type of error occurs when the researcher selects an inappropriate population or universe from which to obtain data.
Example: Packaged goods manufacturers often conduct surveys of housewives, because they are easier to contact, and it is assumed they decide what is to be purchased and also do the actual purchasing. In this situation there often is population specification error. The husband may purchase a significant share of the packaged goods, and have significant direct and indirect influence over what is bought. For this reason, excluding husbands from samples may yield results targeted to the wrong audience.
Sampling error occurs when a probability sampling method is used to select a sample, but the resulting sample is not representative of the population concern. Unfortunately, some element of sampling error is unavoidable. This is accounted for in confidence intervals, assuming a probability sampling method is used.
Example: Suppose that we collected a random sample of 500 people from the general U.S. adult population to gauge their entertainment preferences. Then, upon analysis, found it to be composed of 70% females. This sample would not be...
...In the world of mass media there are many regulations that exist. These regulations are decided by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). On June 19, 1934 the FCC, which is an independent government agency, was created under the Communications Act of 1934. At the beginning the FCC was responsible for regulating broadcast, telegraph, and telephone. Now the FCC expanded its regulations to new communication technologies such as the satellite, microwave, cellular telephones, PCS service and private radio communications. The responsibility of the FCC and their regulations are often questioned if they are necessary or not. By examining Horwitz’s “The Evolution of the American Telecommunication System and the Origin of Communication Regulation.,” one could take the side that the regulation of media is necessary.
Regulation of media is necessary to prevent a monopoly-- which is one company controlling the entire market. If there was a monopoly on media then the company could charge and price whatever they want and only give service to those they wanted to. By having mediaregulations this is not able to happen. Natural monopolies in wired carriers, which are monopolies approved by the FCC, keep costs down and prevent a cluttering of wiring in the air or ripping up streets to install underground...
...direction and control exercised over the actions of the members, citizens, or inhabitants of communities, societies, and states. Media is the means of communication, such as radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and the internet which influence people broadly. The mainstream American media information presented to the public viewers is selected by the government. Outside of government institutions, no other unit has more influence in determining policy decisions and elections more than the mass media. Although the framers of the Constitution could never have envisioned the increase of mass media that we enjoy today, they were very aware that the press would play a serious role in the growing democracy. It's no coincidence that freedom of the press constitutes the First Amendment in the Bill of Rights.
The media's role in government goes back to the colonial era, when daily newspapers were the only source of political as well as other news for the colonists. The media has transformed intensively over the past 200 years. Most of the change has occurred since the mid-1990s, with the advent of the Internet and all-news cable television channels. As these and other communication technologies keep on evolving at the speed of light, the role of the media in government will also continue to modify. The Internet has become an immense factor in the media, primarily the major...
MEDIA POLICY AND REGULATION:
Internal mediaregulation refers to the way principles or ‘rules’ are setup within different sectors of the media, whether it be by specific people or governing bodies who introduce parameters which control what is read, heard or seen by society. Regulatory frameworks are present in different forms such as societal norms, specific pressure groups, advertisers and consumers. Media in South Africa may differ with regards to societal norms than England in that our audiences are sensitive to anything racially driven or racially explicit because of our country’s history. It is a question of whether the media content is within the boundaries of what is socially acceptable and what is not. An example of this would be the fact that certain papers and publications contain adverts and information of an erotic nature and some don’t. The influence of certain pressure groups is a regulator in the media; groups that are large enough to impart a lasting message within society are usually the ones that end up successfully enforcing journalistic reform in one medium or another. Groups such as AIDS-awareness groups or animal rights groups are good examples, in that they constantly monitor media forms.
Advertisers determine the content of the media and what is published,...
...| UKMedia History |
History of Press in UK
By the early 19th century there were 52 London papers and over 100 other titles. As stamp, paper and other duties were progressively reduced from the 1830s onwards (all duties on newspapers were gone by 1855) there was a massive growth in overall circulation as major events and improved communications developed the public's need for information. The Daily Universal Register began life in 1785 and was later to become known as The Times from 1788. This was the most significant newspaper of the first half of the 19th century, but from around 1860 there were a number of more strongly competitive titles, each differentiated by its political biases and interests.
The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by a group of non-conformist businessmen. Its most famous editor, Charles Prestwich Scott, made the Manchester Guardian into a world-famous newspaper in the 1890s. It is now called The Guardian and published in London.
The Chartist Northern Star, first published on 26 May 1838, was a pioneer of popular journalism but was very closely linked to the fortunes of the movement and was out of business by 1852. At the same time there was the establishment of more specialized periodicals and the first cheap newspaper in the Daily Telegraph and Courier (1855), later to be known simply as the Daily Telegraph. From 1860 until around 1910 is considered a 'golden age' of newspaper...