India is one of the greatest democratic country in the world, which is based on the three pillars: Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. These three pillars monitor to each other, but now a days the Media is playing a role of the fourth pillar of democracy, which keeps eyes on these three pillars.
Journalism, plays a key role in media. It delivers all the information of current affairs and in the country and world.
Our constitution gives us Right To Freedom Of Speech And Expression by Article 19. On the basis of this article media also expresses its view regarding current affairs and try to raise public voice against unfair government rule. Also, Article 19 of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (UDHR), guarantees right to freedom of expression as, “Everyone has right to freedom of opinion and expression, this right includes the right to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through our media and regardless of frontiers.”
A day by day development in science and satellite technology, media has reached directly to the people and to the whole world. It means live telecast of current affairs, parliamentary work, sports, events we can watch directly at home due to the media with the help of satellite technology.
We can watch through news channels how our MP’s are raising questions regarding the welfare of people or whether they are doing so or not? If any politician or any person who has higher authority misuses their power, then media always try to discover truth by their sting operation and many such other methods. Because of same public image of a person gets ruined and it results into increased rate of attacks of on the media persons. We have lost our prominent journalist, J. Dey in such attack as he was killed by those people who were afraid of him.
...Freedom of speech and expression
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1 adopted in 1948, provides, in Article 19, that:
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Technically, as a resolution of the United Nations General Assembly rather than a treaty, it is not legally binding in its entirety on members of the UN. Furthermore, whilst some of its provisions are considered to form part of customary international law, there is dispute as to which. Freedom of speech is granted unambiguous protection in international law by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which is binding on around 150 nations.
In adopting the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Monaco, Australia and the Netherlands insisted on reservations to Article 19 insofar as it might be held to affect their systems of regulating and licensing broadcasting.
The majority of African constitutions provide legal protection for freedom of speech. However, these rights are exercised inconsistently in practice.
1. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948,...
...Freedom of Speech and expression means the right to express one's own convictions and opinions freely by words of mouth, writing, printing, pictures or any other mode. The freedom of speech is regarded as the first condition of liberty. Accepted that the right to freedom of speech is the essence of free society and it must be safeguarded at all time. Liberty to express opinions and ideas without hindrance, and especially without fear of punishment plays significant role in the development of that particular society and ultimately for that state. The freedom of expression includes all forms of art including cartoon, media-print and electronic etc.. The freedom of speech and expression do not confer an absolute right to express one's thoughts freely. Clause (2) of Article 19 of the Indian Constitution enables the legislature to impose certain restrictions on free speech such as security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency and morality, contempt of court, defamation, incitement to an offence, and sovereignty and integrity of India. Freedom of speech and expression are guaranteed not only by the constitution or statutes of various states but also by various international conventions like Universal...
...Freedom of Speech and Expression and Journalism
Problems faced in the industry, and the solutions and guidelines to the problem.
A report done by Ooi K.L Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
*Note: This is an undergraduate individual assignment report. It might not be the best report, yet it is still referable for other undergraduates who are doing the same subject area. ** This assignment was done for the subject UAMG 3063 - Communication Law in the third year of Degree in Public Relations under the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences at Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Freedom of Speech and Expression and Journalism Journalism is a difficult profession in Malaysia and they face impediments peculiar to the society (Radhakrishnan 2010). Radhakrishnan says in his report that journalish has an honorable objective which is the circulation and dissemination of information including news, comment and opinion as well as entertainment. He also states that journalists should be borne in mind that in order to enjoy to status of a profession, the practitioners are expected at all times to conduct themselves in an ethical manner upholding the best tradition of the profession The role of journalism in a democratic society needs special mention. It is a necessary and essential prerequisite for democracy to survive. It acts as the fourth estate and it is also the essential watchdog over the conduct of the...
...FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND EXPRESSION
Speech is God's gift to mankind. Through speech a human being conveys his thoughts, sentiments and feeling to others. Freedom of speech and expression is thus a natural right, which a human being acquires on birth. It is, therefore, a basic right. "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion andexpression; the right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek and receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers" proclaims the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (1948). The people of India declared in the Preamble of the Constitution, which they gave unto themselves their resolve to secure to all the citizens liberty of thought and expression. This resolve is reflected in Article 19(1)(a) which is one of the Articles found in Part III of the Constitution, which enumerates the Fundamental Rights.
Man as rational being desires to do many things, but in a civil society his desires have to be controlled, regulated and reconciled with the exercise of similar desires by other individuals. The guarantee of each of the above right is, therefore, restricted by the Constitution in the larger interest of the community. The right to freedom of speech and...
...related to the freedom of the press?
Expression through speech is one of the basic guarantees provided by civil society. Freedom of speech enjoys special position as far India is concerned. The importance of freedom of expression and speech can be easily understand by the fact that preamble of constitution itself ensures to all citizens inter alia, liberty of thought,expression, belief, faith and worship. The constitutional significance of the freedom of speech consists in the Preamble of Constitution and is transformed as fundamental and human right in Article 19(1) (a) as “freedom of speech and expression”. Explaining the scope of freedom of speech and expression Supreme Court has said that the words "freedom of speech and expression" must be broadly constructed to include the freedom to circulate one's views by words of mouth or in writing or through audiovisual instrumentalities. Freedom of Speech and expression means the right to express one's own convictions and opinions freely by words of mouth, writing, printing, pictures or any other mode. It thus includes the expression of one's idea through any communicable medium or...
MASS MEDIA AND THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN KENYA
For many years human rights activists, different organizations, and trade unions of Kenya have ceaselessly fought for the basic human rights inclusion of the legislation process to become part of the law. An example of these rights that they have advocated for is freedom of speech. Freedom of speech simply refers to the democratic right of an individual to express his/her political, religious, social or economic views through oral or written speech without being restrained or fear of censorship (Rodman and George pg 70). The media have acted as a watchdog to oversee the government operations. Therefore, it has played a significant role to ensure social welfare by compelling the government to prove actions from time to time. This has formed the basis of the discussion on matters that relate to the
freedom of speech and the mass media in the Kenyan context.
Unlike in other countries, Kenyans promulgated the new constitution in 2010 that guarantees freedom and independence of the press. The former regime government practiced censorship of the press by enacting tight laws that might prevent the act of criticizing the government or any political leader. Anyone who tried to publish or utter any information about the government even...
...Media Regulation Vs Freedom of Expression
India is considered the largest democracy in the World. A free country which is also recognized from its media. Through ages many countries have tried to give "Freedom of Expression" to their media whether it be print media, broadcast media or the latest online media. But have we ever thought that what is actually considered as "Freedom of Expression".
Our constitution in Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of speech and expression, from which is derived the freedom of the press or the media, because there is no separate mention of media in the Constitution. It is the individual's right to freedom of speech and expression in which it is understood.
But on the other hand it is subjected to reasonable restrictions under specified heads which are mentioned in Article 19(2): like public order, contempt of court, etc.
With 'Freedom'comes a lot of responsibilities for media. Actually the media is the mirror to the world but nowadays the roles are changing from informer to opinion making, influencing and decision making.
Recently the Chairman of Press Council of India while...
...Amendment I of the United States Constitution states, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances" ("Bill"). Many Americans believe that online content should be regulated. However, internet censorship violates our rights tofreedom of expression, association, speech, and press. The U.S. Constitution protects those rights, and as Americans we should make sure to hold on to them at any cost. Government regulation of the Internet would threaten its very existence. In addition, if an attempt to censor the Internet was made, the system would be so problematic and error-prone that it would most likely fail.
On February 1, 1996 the U.S. Congress enacted the Communications Decency Act. This act created criminal penalties for the "knowing" transmission over the Internet of material considered "indecent to minors." These provisions also made it a crime to make any computer network transmission with the intent to "annoy" or "harass" the recipient, and extended a criminal ban on discussing abortion devices and procedures to computer network communications ("Overview"). This was, in essence, a bill designed to censor the Internet. In response, several organizations were...