Essay about Management Information Systems - 1798 Words

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Management Information Systems

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Text Preview Management Information Systems (MIS) 2011/2012

Lecture … (1)

Management Information Systems (MIS): General Introduction
When computers were first used in the mid-1950s, the applications were primarily the simple processing of transaction records and preparation of business documents and standard reports. This was termed Data Processing (DP) or Electronic Data Processing (EDP). By the mid-1960s, many users and builders of information processing systems developed a more comprehensive vision of what computers could do for organizations. This vision was termed as Management Information System (MIS). It enlarged the scope of data processing to add systems for supporting management and administrative activities including planning, scheduling, analysis and decision making. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a merging of computer and communications technologies. The organizational use of information technology was extended to Intranet (internal networks), Local Area Networks (LAN), external networks that connects an organization to its suppliers and customers, and communications systems that enable employees to work alone or in groups. Innovative applications of information technology created value by providing customized services at any time and at any location, and information systems began to prompt changes in organizational structures and processes. Although the scope of systems providing information technology services has increased dramatically, the broad concept of MIS as a system that combines transaction and operational requirements with administrative and management support remains valid. The term MIS is still in common use despite a recent tendency to use the simpler term

“Information Systems”.

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Management Information Systems (MIS) 2011/2012

Lecture … (1)

Before one can explain management information systems, the terms Systems, Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom, and Management must briefly be defined: A system is a combination or arrangement of parts to form an integrated whole according to some common principles or rules. A system is a group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. It is an assembly of elements arranged in a local order to achieve certain objectives. The organization is also a system of people where people are selected on the basis of number, quality and ability and are placed in hierarchical order plan and execute the business activities to achieve certain goals and objectives. Such a system (sometimes called a dynamic system) has three basic interacting components or functions: • Input: involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed. For example, raw materials, energy, data, and human efforts must be secured and organized for processing. • Processing: involves transformation process that converts input into output. Examples are a manufacturing process, or mathematical calculations. • Output: involves transferring elements that have been produced by a transformation process to their ultimate destination. For example, finished products, human services, and management information must be transmitted to their human users. 2

Management Information Systems (MIS) 2011/2012

Lecture … (1)

Feedback and Control A system with feedback and control components is sometimes called a cybernetic system, that is, a self-monitoring, self-regulating system. • Feedback is data about the performance of a system. For example, data about sales performance is feedback to a sales manager. • Control involves monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine whether a system is moving toward the achievement of its goal. The control function then makes necessary adjustments to a system’s input and processing components to ensure that it produces proper output. For example, a sales manager exercises control when he or she reassigns salespersons to new sales... Show More

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