European Management Journal (2013) 31, 124– 136
journal homepage: elsevier.com/locate/emj
Diversity attitudes and group knowledge processing in multicultural organizations Jakob Lauring, Jan Selmer
Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark
KEYWORDS Openness to diversity; Diversity attitudes; Knowledge sharing; Multicultural organizations; Cultural diversity; Groups; Linguistic diversity; Language diversity
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a groupÕs diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge. ª 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the knowledge-based economy organizations have come to rely increasingly on intangible resources (Østergaard, Timmermans, & Kristinsson, 2011; Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997). In consequence, an organizationÕs knowledge base, in the form of human capital, has become even more important for its performance. Add to this, the capability to locate, share, and use the groupÕs knowledge is an important source of competitive advantage (Tsoukas & Mylonopoulos, 2004). In this regard, it has been argued that employee diversity could be a valuable source for knowledge creation. If diverse members interact and thereby integrate previously * Corresponding author. Address: Department of Business Administration, Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark. Tel.: +45 89 48 66 88; fax: +45 89 48 61 25. E-mail address: [email protected] (J. Selmer).
disconnected information they provide access to greater knowledge resources (De Dreu & West, 2001; van Knippenberg et al., 2004). This conception is supported by social network theories arguing that unique knowledge sources can be more valuable than those shared by everyone (Burt, 2004; Granovetter, 1973). Also, it has been argued that the extent to which the group includes conﬂicting perspectives increases its membersÕ ability to resist pressure for conformity (Cummings, 2004; Nemeth, 1986). Finally, if individuals in a group use a variety of perspectives it may lead to conceptual differentiation and more divergent thinking groups (De Dreu & West, 2001; Gruenfeld, Thomas-Hunt, & Kim, 1998). Consequently, there could be some value in diverse teams for organizations dealing with knowledge as an important organizational asset. Nonetheless, a number of studies suggest that the existence of diversity in itself may not be sufﬁcient for ensuring that existing knowledge resources are utilized (Jehn, Neale,
0263-2373/$ - see front matter ª 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2012.03.016
Diversity attitudes and group knowledge processing in multicultural organizations & Northcraft, 1999; Mitchell, Nicholas, & Boyle, 2009; Stasser & Titus, 2003). This is particularly true when speaking of multicultural organizations where value-related, behavioral, and linguistic variations could function as barriers for locating and sharing new insights and perspective (Hambrick, Davison, Snell, & Snow, 1998; Von Glinow, Shapiro, & Brett, 2004). Some studies, however, indicate that barriers to positive group...
...Everybody knows that Google Inc.'s (GOOG
) innovations in search technology made it the No. 1 search engine. But Google didn't make money until it started auctioning ads that appear alongside the search results. Advertising today accounts for 99% of the revenue of a company whose market capitalization now tops $100 billion.
Now, research is showing that Google's auction methodology, invented internally and so important for its success, is far more innovative than auction experts once believed. While superficially similar to earlier types of auctions, it is a "novel mechanism" that "emerged in the wild," write the authors of The High Price of Internet Keyword Auctions, a new study by Benjamin Edelman of Harvard University, Michael Ostrovsky of Stanford University, and Michael Schwarz of the University of California at Berkeley. Google's AdWords became so successful after its debut four years ago that some of its key features were quickly adopted by Yahoo! Inc. (YHOO
), then the search-ad leader.MATHEMATICAL RIGOR
Close-mouthed Google has opened up about AdWords since the three economists cracked its code last November. It freed Hal R. Varian, a Berkeley economist who consults for Google, to publish some of his findings about the auction methodology. And on Feb. 22, Google gave an interview to BusinessWeek in which for the first time it named the technical leader of the project: Eric Veach, a...
What recommendations would you make to Google about how they can change their organisational structure to improve efficiency (on the assumption that they will continue to grow fast) without losing their competitive advantage of innovation
At the moment, Google is considered by many to be the most innovative company in the world. At the moment, the company is worth $350 billion and is one of the largest and most recognizable brands in the world. How didGoogle get to this position? Larry Page and Sergy Brin, the founders of Google, always believed in preserving strong company values, and it was with their unorthodox approach that Google became such an industry giant.
The company’s values are clearly listed on their website, and they include a constant search for information, constantly striving for improvement, and being serious without having to follow strict company rules. These are the values that the company began rapidly growing with in 1998, and with these values the company continues to approach new heights now.
At the same time, however, Google had to face the same issues any growing company would have, the main of which being the ability to preserve the momentum. Most companies follow a cycle of rapid growth and a following stagnation at some point, but Google’s objective was to maintain this growth at all times. The way they managed to achieve it was through constant...
Google is a global technology leader, focused on improving the ways people connect with information. Through innovations in web search and advertising, Google is now a top Internet destination and possesses one of the most recognized brands in the world. Available to anyone with an Internet connection, Google maintains the world's largest online index of web sites and other content.
Revenue is generated by delivering relevant, cost-effective online advertising. Businesses use the Google AdWords program to promote their products and services with targeted advertising. Furthermore, Google maintains advertising on thousands of third-party web sites using the Google Network and Google AdSense.
While Google continues to expand its product line into new and existing territories, the company considers its primary industry to be web search technology. However, Google also faces competition from online advertising companies, particularly those that provide pay-per-click services. Currently, Google considers its primary competitors to be Microsoft and Yahoo.
Future operating performance will be directly related to the role of information technology in the marketplace. Information technology is an area experiencing constant growth and innovation, which existing companies must address in...
Thorsen Bank is planning to develop an app that enables users to carry out a range of banking services via their smartphone for four months. Since Thorsen bank has a limited time & budget with a small team of existing software developers, it is not able to develop both iOS and Android OS apps together at once. In this report, we will address the key strengths and weaknesses of each OS, and give our recommendation that we believe would be in the best interest of Thorsen Bank.
iOS vs Android OS
iOS Strengths | iOS Weaknesses |
* More downloads and use a banking app * More mature acquisition and retention rate of iPhone users * During the app store submission process, it is possible to develop android OS app * Developing for the iPhone is easy from the hardware perspective (only five devices running IOS) | * Apple has a right to reject submitted application and future application updates * Required to work with Apple to get the security fix reviewed, approved, and deployed quickly * Need iOS app development education for the high quality app * The average cost of developing app $27,463 (According to Vision Mobile) |
Android OS Strengths | Android OS Weaknesses |
* High market share and consistently continue to rise up * Open source code provides a low barrier to entry for app developers * Next future innovative device like galaxy and sky will be more likely to use open source app * The average...
My Mastery Influence: Larry Page
Full Sail University
Business Intelligence, encompassing the ideas of data analytics, processing, and reporting, is best shown through the development of Google by Larry Page. Larry Page graduated as a star of his class with a Bachelor of Science in Engineering from University of Michigan in the early 1990s. Larry flashed signs of his impending mastery early on, but really shone through in a senior level class at UM designed for brainstorming and choosing a senior project. According to his professor, Elliot Soloway, most students would choose a project that would assure an easy, passing grade. However, as he would recall the conversation with Page, “He proposed a project, and I don't remember the details, but I specifically remember I said 'Larry, I don't know if you can do that”. Page simply responded with, “I don't know either but I'm going to give it a shot” (Eadicicco 2014). Professor Soloway recalled being so impressed with the enthusiasm and fervor Page showed in this project, he decided early on that despite the results, he would not dock Page’s grade. This never became an issue, as Page was successful in completing the project, earning a perfect A+ for its successful completion (2014).
The tenacity that Page showed in his undergraduate endeavors never ceased. At a mere 22 years old, he was considering attending Stanford University for a doctorate program in computer...
The Google Organization
COM/530 COMMUNICATIONS FOR ACCOUNTANTS
October 23, 2009
The Google organization maintains a small company feel. They want their employees to be comfortable sharing ideas and opinions. They want the employees to maintain and healthy life and work balance. So they provide them with benefits at work, like workout rooms, locker rooms, washers and dryers, massage room, video games, and so much more (Farfan, 2009). It seems to be relaxed with open communication. The culture at Google is informal (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Google takes risks with the way they innovated the culture. Employees can take their dogs to work and they sit on couches with their laptops. They ride bicycles back and forth to meetings to get there faster. The breakfast, lunch and dinner is free at the café which has a chef on hand.
Google has a mission statement which lists the core values that they want the employees and the company to follow. The mission statement states: To organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful (Gaddam, 2008). The core values are things that make the mission statement effective. The core values are as follows:
1. We want to work with great people: we value diversity in people and ideas.
2. Technology innovation is our lifeblood: build the world’s best technology and products.
3. Working at...
...Edmundo Javier Flores Ulloa
The Google Story
- Introduction (What is the major theme of the book?)
The book as the name implies is about the story of Google, is all about Google from the very beginning, the process from being a crazy idea from two students a.k.a Larry and Sergey that wanted to create a better searcher with accurate information and in the process creating a new system for searches called “PageRank”, that provides what users want instead of looking what can take money from them. Also about how they succeed on the market with their primary goal users’ satisfaction and always doing things as the way they wanted and always trying to keep control of the company to still being first the customer then the profits. And, how Google become the first place around the world on the subject of search, being available in more than 100 languages and creating opportunities to all size businesses to have ads on Google and the opportunity to anyone to buy shares without any preference all being equal, changing the way “Wall Street” does. In conclusion this book is about Google a company that were founded by two students that weren’t looking for fame or money just wanted users have a quality searcher to satisfy their need.
Well, I really like the book, most...
Google is known today as one of biggest internet site all around the world. The young company, which will be celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2008, is the leader of the search business, a concentrated business where it faces competition from Yahoo and Microsoft.
In order to understand how Google have succeeded in its enterprise, we will respond to several questions about the company and the search business market.
What were the key factors behind Google's early success?
The extraordinary power of the American internet giant bases on three essential fundamentals: innovation, efficiency and reactivity.
When they created their company, the two young American geniuses Larry Page and Sergey Brin, succeeded in grabbing the internet research market opportunities, which at that time were to simplify the search process and to make it more pertinent and more organized. These opportunities were not obvious when they decided to transform their studies searches into a real start-up company which is today a fast growing multinational corporation. We can say without any doubt that they are digital and internet visionaries and that their visionary sense..
1. Case Study
The rise of Google, now a $6.1 billion company, has been fast and fierce. Founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page met in 1995 as Stanford University graduate students. They created a search engine that combined the technologies of Page's...