Historical background of higher education
Ever since the Federation of Malaya gained independence in 1957, theMalaysian education system has been developing so as to unify the nationstateand to promote economic growth. The Education Act of 1961,which followed educational reform efforts such as the Razak Statementof 1956 and the Rahman Talib Report of 1960, has governed the moderneducation system in Malaysia. These educational reforms correlated withsocioeconomic conditions. In the early 1970s, the New Economic Policy(NEP 1971), or Bumiputera Policy, was implemented. The NEP aimedto bring about a better balance in enrollment among the different ethnicgroups in Malaysia. 1 It resulted in a steady increase in the number ofBumiputera students in Malaysian universities. Furthermore, since theearly 1970s, the Malaysian government has sought to make more effectiveuse of the nation’s Malay human resources in the process of economicdevelopment, and the percentage of Malay students at every educationallevel has increased steadily.Basically, the Malaysian education system follows a 6-3-2 structure,with six years of primary school, three years of lower secondary school,and two years of upper secondary school (see Appendix 1). Eleven yearsof basic education are provided to all citizens. However, the highereducationsystem has been limited to the elite citizens of the country. Performance in the public examination, known as the SPM (SijilPelajaranMalsyaia/Malaysia Certicate of Education), which is taken after theeleventh year of school, determines whether FormIV students can enterpost-secondary education (matriculation, or six Form). Until the mid-1990s,the Malaysian government encouraged students to study overseas in theU.K., the U.S., Australia, or Japan.The 1st phase of the establishment of public universities started in1969 under the Universities and University Colleges Act. During this time,UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM 1969), UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia(UKM 1970), UniversitiPertanian Malaysia (UPM 1971), and UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia (UTM 1975) were established (see Table 1). Moreover,four public universities were established during the second phase (fromThe Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) was created on 27 March 2004 to take charge of higher education in Malaysia which involves more than 900,000 students pursuing higher education in 20 public universities, 33 private universities and university colleges, 4 foreign university branch campuses, 22 polytechnics, 37 community colleges and about 500 private colleges. The MOHE’s mission is to create a higher education environment that will foster the development of academic and institutional excellence. It is in line with the vision of the government to make Malaysia a centre of educational excellence and to internationalise of Malaysian education. Higher educational reform and the roles of private universities in the mid-1990sIn the mid-1990s, four educational acts were implemented: the EducationAct of 1995, the 1995 Amendments to the University and UniversityColleges Act of 1971 (1995 Amendments to the UUCA 1971), the PrivateHigher Education Institutions Act of 1996 (PHEIA 1996), and the NationalCouncil on Higher Education Act of 1996 (NCHEA 1996). With theimplementation of the Private Higher Education Institutions Act of 1996,the private sector increased its involvement in providing tertiary education(Malaysia 2001). The Act allowed private institutions of higher educationand foreign universities to establish franchises and degree courses. Inparticular, private-sector universities were encouraged to offer science andtechnology courses in order to increase enrollment at higher-educationalinstitutions and to produce a greater number of highly skilled graduates(Malaysia 1998: 122). Six private universities, Malaysia Multimedia University (MMU), UniversitiTenagaNasional (Uniten), UniversitiTeknologiPertonas (UTP),UniversitiTunAdbul Razak (Unitar), International Medical...
Education in Malaysia is overseen by two government ministries: the Ministry of Education for matters up to the secondary level, and the Ministry of Higher Education for tertiary education. Although education is the responsibility of the federal government, each state has an Education Department to help coordinate educational matters in their respective states. The main legislation governing education is the Education Act of 1996.
Education may be obtained from government-sponsored schools, private schools, or through homeschooling. By law, primary education is compulsory. As in other Asian countries such as Singapore and China, standardized tests are a common feature.
Firstly, we must know about the history of education in malaysia. Sekolah Pondok (literally, Hut school), Madrasah and other Islamic schools were the earliest forms of schooling available in Malaysia . Early works of Malay literature such as Hikayat Abdullah mention these schools indicating they pre-date the current secular model of education.
Secular schools in Malaysia were largely an innovation of the British colonial government. Many of the earliest schools in Malaysia were founded in the Straits Settlements of Penang, Melaka, and Singapore. The oldest...
...Title: Re-image our Country: What do Moral, Citizenship and History Education in Malaysia Play Their Role in Constructing the National Identity 2. Abstract
This paper examines the politics and practice of the social education implemented in Malaysia. Our goal is to provide an overview of theoretical conceptions of social education, which we examined the policies and content of the Moral Education, Citizenship Education and History Education within the context of ethnicity, social cohesion and nation-building. History can construct one’s past, while history education takes full responsibility in building the nation identity and social memories. Moreover, Moral Education and Citizenship Education play a role in cultivating the sense of patriotism through the pedagogy in the classroom. Public education in Malaysia is promoted as a nation-building tool, intend to inculcate a sense of Malaysian-ness and patriotism. This paper seeks to look at the development of the policies of social education in Malaysia, which includes Moral Education, Citizenship Education and History Education. In particularly, I examine the contents of Malaysian state-approved textbooks.
3. Descriptors: POLITICS/POLITICAL CHANGE; MORAL...
...EDUCATION ACTS AND REPORTS
Integration of the various racial and ethnic groups, the central aim of the 1 Malaysia concept, had always been the primary concern of the governments’ education policy since Independence in 1957. In fact the Razak education report of 1956 and the Rahman Talib report of 1960 had delineated clear guidelines and emphasise national integration.
Compare and contrast out the aims and provision of Barnes Report (1950), Fenn-Wu Report (1951), the Razak Report (1956) and the Rahman Talib Report (1960).
After World War Two, the education system in Malaya was pretty much in shambles, and until Malaya achieved her independence in 1957, much had to be done to map out a new education system for the nation.
Efforts began with the introduction of a new, national education system with English as the one and only medium of instruction, but eventually, an education system was formed in which Malay became the main medium of instruction.
In 1949, a Central Advisory Committee on Education was set up to aid the government in deciding on the best form of education system, which could be implemented in Malaya, to be the catalyst in fostering national unity.
In 1950, the Barnes Committee came out with the Barnes Report, which proposed that all primary vernacular schools maintain one single standard...
...MalaysiaEducation Blueprint 2013 - 2025 Foreword
Education is a major contributor to the development of our social and economic capital. It inspires creativity and fosters innovation; provides our youth with the necessary skills to be able to compete in the modern labour market; and is a key driver of growth in the economy. And as this Government puts in place measures under the New Economic Model, Economic Transformation Plan and Government Transformation Plan to place Malaysia firmly on the path to development, we must ensure that our education system continues to progress in tandem. By doing so, our country will continue to keep pace in an increasingly competitive global economy.
Our education system has been the bedrock of our development. It has provided this generation and those before it with the skills and knowledge that have driven the country’s growth and, with it, our prosperity. At the centre of this are the thousands of dedicated teachers, principals, administrators, and officers and staff at the Ministry of Education, both past and present, whose contribution can never be overstated. In the 55 years since our independence, they have overseen a dramatic improvement to the quality and provision of education. And through their...
...taught in all the National Type Schools. This was a process to transform it into the National Language. The Razak Report also proposed a secondary education system with the Malay language as the medium of instruction. (Penyata Razak, Perenggan 12, 1956)
Other than that, this policy also supported the Malay language as the national language as well as to standardized the same educational content at all level of schooling to inculate the spirit of unity and cooperation among the students from different races. The spirit of this education policy became the foundation to create a healthy and educated young generation as the human resource to developing the nation. Students also can begin their activity together under one roof and use the same school facilities without any discrimination. So, students are able to understand the customs, culture, thinking and sensitive matters that cannot even arise in a race. In fact, students can also foster a sense of belonging or spirit de corps among them.
Although there is opposition from the Chinese people, the people of India largely accept the Malay language as a compulsory subject in primary schools. (Haris Md Jali, 1990), stated that representative of India society in the Federal Legislative Council SOK Abdullah praised the Razak Report as "giving" their languages as valid in the state of education system. (http://mymla.org/files/icmm2010_papers/ICMM2010_p13.pdf)
The Weaknesess of...
...POLAN BIN PILIN
Jalan Maju, P.O.BOX 67896
|PERSONAL DETAILS |
Date of Birth : 04 Mac 1988 Height : 157 cm
I/C No : 880304-12-0000 Weight : 45 kg
Sex : Female Health : Excellent
Religion : Islam H/P No : 013-05060708
|EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND |
2006-2008 POLITEKNIK MUKAH, SARAWAK.
Diploma in Secretarial science
2001-2005 SMK TERATAI TAWAU, SABAH
‘Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia’ (SPM)
‘Penilaian Menengah Rendah’ (PMR)
1995-2000 SK BUNGA RAYA TAWAU, SABAH
|EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES |
2007-2009 POLITEKNIK MUKAH, SARAWAK.
Participated in student’s work production exhibition
Participated in all Commerce Club activities.
Participated in Perarakan Hari TYT, Mukah.
2002-2006 SMK TERATAI TAWAU, SABAH
Committee member of Bulan Sabit Merah Club (PBSM)
Leader of ‘Kelab Rukun Negara’.
Secretary of ‘ Persatuan Pelajar Islam (PERPPIS)’
Student Leader of Smk...
...3, No. 4, August 2012
Impact of Globalization on Trends in Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education Institutions
Norasmah Othman, Nor Hafiza Othman, and Rahmah Ismail
Abstract—With the trend of increasing globalization, entrepreneurship has been receiving more attention from government and educational institutions. Changes in the uncertain world economy have resulted in fewer job opportunities for college graduates, and in response, the government has sought to develop creativity among students through entrepreneurial activities and programs. The question now is, Are the increasing trends of changes and demands for entrepreneurship education due to the impact of globalization? To answer this question, this study examined the impact of globalization on trends in the demand for business and entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial skills in Malaysia. Questionnaire data were obtained from 306 participants. The participants were randomly selected from the population of administrators in higher education institutions in Malaysia. Data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics method. The findings show that there is an increasing demand for entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial skills, indicating that globalization has influenced the demand for entrepreneurship...