American University of Sharjah
Department of Arabic
The Maghazi Literature
Name:| Lieth Al-Fityani|
July 21, 2011
Arabic was chiefly a spoken language with an oral literature of elaborate poetry and, to a lesser extent, prose. It is certainly known that the revelation of Quran had an important impact on the development of the Arabic literature. In the pre-Islamic era, both poetry and prose dealt with a restricted range of topics; however with the rise of Islam and the revelation of Quran, the range of topics had expanded dramatically to encourage for developments in prose and poetry. In this paper, I provide a historical overview about the development of the Maghazi literature in Islamic prose between the first/seventh century and second/eighth century. This paper also discusses the different styles and characteristics in a comparison context between three of the most recognized compilers of maghazi in the Islamic prose; Musa b. ‘Uqba, Ibn Ishaq, and al-Waqidi. It also discusses the different issues which exist in this genre of literature.
Table of Contents
2. Historical overview:4
3. Characteristics of Maghazi literature:5
3.2 Chronological framework:6
4. Issue of plagiarism:7
5. Issue of authenticity:7
The word maghazi means raiding expeditions. As a literature, it is specifically applied to the accounts of the early Muslim military expeditions in which the Prophet took part, as Kritzeck states in his book Anthology of Islamic Literature: From the Rise of Islam to Modern Times (1975). In other words, it is a literature that has signified the expeditions and raids organized by the Prophet Muhammad after the hijra. As literature, the Maghazi literature goes under the Sirah literature as it forms a sub-category within the Sirah of the Prophet. 2. Historical overview:
As this kind of literature falls under the Sirah, many scholars related them to each other and used them in the same context to talk about the life of Muhammad and the historical events which includes the Muslims expeditions during his life; moreover, they refer to the compilers of this literature as “the compiles of maghazi and sirah” such as Ibn Ishaq, as Kritzeck (1975) explains. However, other scholars identified the maghazi literature as a separate literature of its own. Al-Waqidi, who is regarded as the most authoritative by Malik b. Anas and Ibn Hanbal, compiled his own book, named Kitab al Maghazi which exists in a short fragment of twenty extracts with chains of narrators. It is not certainly indicated when the Maghazi literature did begin specifically but Kritzeck clarifies that Urwa b. al-Zubayr was recognized to be the first to classify a material on the maghazi because of the link between him and al-Zuhari, who was known as an important authority on maghazi and sirah, referred to him as an “inexhaustible sea of information,” also scholars as Ibn Ishaq and al-Waqidi referred to him and his accounts in their books. It is believed that this literature first began during the seventh century when the Islamic material came to be written. Three of the most important compilers of maghazi literature who came in the beginning of the second/eighth century and worked on gathering as much credible accounts about the maghazi of the Prophet as possible are: Musa b. ‘Uqba, Ibn Ishaq, and al-Waqidi. As mentioned earlier, al-Waqidi’s book was the most recognized among all due to the number of compilers who referred to it in their writings about maghazi. For example, Ibn Ishaq in his section about the maghazi in his book about the sirah of the Prophet corresponds very directly to Kitab al Maghazi for al-Waqidi and to the accounts of Musa b. ‘Uqba. Different writings came after the writings of Musa b. ‘Uqba, Ibn Ishaq, and al-Waqidi and continued to be based on the second/eight...
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* 1 Evolution of ecocriticism in literary studies
* 2 Definition
* 3 See also
* 4 Sources
* 5 References
* 6 External links
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IPGK Pendidikan Teknik
Based on your experience learning
literature, what is literature? What
are the characteristics of literature?
Do you need to learn literature?
• However, the
“real” and “fake” or
“fact” and “fiction”
isn’t always a good
Literature is Subjective
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of works – a group of works “agreed
upon” to be “the best” by well-known
scholars and critics, has been
Why do you think the “canon” was
• The “Canon” excluded most works that were
not by white, European males.
• Works of literature by women, homosexuals,
and works by individuals of varied races,
classes and ethnicities were marginalised.
How did this happen?
• There are many ways of “writing” – but
those in power recognised only one, formal
way of “writing”, and this was given the
• Thus, the literary “canon” is a construct; it
was fashioned by particular people for
particular reasons at a particular time.
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Course Activity Semester A
Discussing Literature and Government
This activity will help you meet these educational goals:
Common Core State Standards—You will initiate and participate effectively in a collaborative discussion (SL.1).
In this course activity, you will participate in a peer discussion about how literary or other artistic pursuits and governmental, religious, political, or social structures affect one another. Afterward, you will summarize the discussion and how it helped shape your thinking about your original ideas.
Directions and Analysis
Task: Peer Discussion and Summary
Your Discussion Process
For this task, you’ll need to work as part of a pair who can meet for a face-to-face discussion. Your teacher will identify a process for this task that fits your learning situation. For instance, if you’re working primarily on your own in this course with no on-site classmates (self-paced course) the process will be a little different than if you are learning with one or more other students in the same building and on the same schedule (group-paced course). Discussions in those two cases are outlined below.
The teacher organizes pairs or enables students to self-organize.
In the discussion session, students take turns presenting their thesis and then discussing each thesis.
Students alternate playing the role of the presenter.
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