1.This is a document from Muhammad the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), governing relations between the Believers i.e. Muslims of Quraysh and Yathrib and those who followed them and worked hard with them. They form one nation -- Ummah.
2.The Quraysh Mohajireen will continue to pay blood money, according to their present custom.
3.In case of war with any body they will redeem their prisoners with kindness and justice common among Believers. (Not according to pre-Islamic nations where the rich and the poor were treated differently).
4.The Bani Awf will decide the blood money, within themselves, according to their existing custom.
5.In case of war with anybody all parties other than Muslims will redeem their prisoners with kindness and justice according to practice among Believers and not in accordance with pre-Islamic notions.
6.The Bani Saeeda, the Bani Harith, the Bani Jusham and the Bani Najjar will be governed on the lines of the above (principles)
7.The Bani Amr, Bani Awf, Bani Al-Nabeet, and Bani Al-Aws will be governed in the same manner.
8.Believers will not fail to redeem their prisoners they will pay blood money on their behalf. It will be a common responsibility of the Ummat and not of the family of the prisoners to pay blood money.
9.A Believer will not make the freedman of another Believer as his ally against the wishes of the other Believers.
10.The Believers, who fear Allah, will oppose the rebellious elements and those that encourage injustice or sin, or enmity or corruption among Believers.
11.If anyone is guilty of any such act all the Believers will oppose him even if he be the son of any one of them.
12.A Believer will not kill another Believer, for the sake of an un-Believer. (i.e. even though the un-Believer is his close relative).
13.No Believer will help an un-Believer against a Believer.
14.Protection (when given) in the Name of Allah will be common. The weakest among Believers may give protection (In the Name of Allah) and it will be binding on all Believers.
15.Believers are all friends to each other to the exclusion of all others.
16.Those Jews who follow the Believers will be helped and will be treated with equality. (Social, legal and economic equality is promised to all loyal citizens of the State).
17.No Jew will be wronged for being a Jew.
18.The enemies of the Jews who follow us will not be helped.
19.The peace of the Believers (of the State of Madinah) cannot be divided. (it is either peace or war for all. It cannot be that a part of the population is at war with the outsiders and a part is at peace).
20.No separate peace will be made by anyone in Madinah when Believers are fighting in the Path of Allah.
21.Conditions of peace and war and the accompanying ease or hardships must be fair and equitable to all citizens alike.
22.When going out on expeditions a rider must take his fellow member of the Army-share his ride.
23.The Believers must avenge the blood of one another when fighting in the Path of Allah (This clause was to remind those in front of whom there may be less severe fighting that the cause was common to all. This also meant that although each battle appeared a separate entity it was in fact a part of the War, which affected all Muslims equally).
24.The Believers (because they fear Allah) are better in showing steadfastness and as a result receive guidance from Allah in this respect. Others must also aspire to come up to the same standard of steadfastness.
25.No un-Believer will be permitted to take the property of the Quraysh (the enemy) under his protection. Enemy property must be surrendered to the State.
26.No un-Believer will intervene in favour of a Quraysh, (because the Quraysh having declared war are the enemy).
27.If any un-believer kills a Believer, without good cause, he shall be killed...
...March 20 2013
Charter Schools The New Version Of Public Schools
As consumers we constantly search for the best quality in products that will satisfy our needs whether is on groceries, electronics or clothes, an if we can’t find satisfaction on local shops or markets we tend to research until we satisfy our desire or pockets. However, when it comes to education we are used to think that what we are offered by traditional school system is quialty by nature. As for education in a new era of technology and virtual classrooms, the budget cuts towards Education have led communities to find a new way to raise their voices toward education system. The subject of charter schools is not new to American culture anymore, as disscussions and controversies have arise about the economical impact caused by charter schools towards public schools. This has left doubts and disavowals about the benefits of a new and dynamic educational system. Although public school system oppose to the develepment of charter school systems, studies have shown that charter schools can be succesfully engaging projects that provide reliable education alternative to communities when properly manage.
In addition to controversies and arguments presented by public schools vs charter school systems, Gary Warth from San Diego U-T reports that at the Charter School Conference that took place on San Diego,...
As of the 2010-2011 school year, our country had a total of nearly 99,000 public schools; these elementary, middle, and high schools all operate with the help of tax dollars. Most of them are traditional schools with educational standards set by each state. Best of all, the education is free. Because public schools are reliant on federal, state, and local tax dollars, funding can be cut. Also, public schools have to follow state guidelines on what they can teach and how children are evaluated.
Charter Schools are like an institutional hybrid. Like traditional public schools, charter schools are free, and they can’t discriminate against students because of their race, gender, or disability. However, parents must usually submit a separate application to enroll a child in a charter school, and like private schools, spaces are often limited. Charter schools are independently run, and some are operated by for-profit private companies. However, charter schools are still funded by government coffers and accountable to the government body — be it state, county, or district — that provides the charter. (Many successful charters do substantial additional fundraising as well.) If a school is mismanaged or test scores are poor, a charter school can be shut down.
In order to start a charter school, parents, community leaders,...
A charter schools is a new or converted public schools that are started by parents seeking another alternative to other existing schools in the area. Charter schools have been developed to serve a particular mission such as on art, or with a particular ethnic emphasis. Charter schools are still public schools. However, there is strict accountability to maintain high standards and charter schools are given freedom from many of the regulations that apply to other public schools, which allows for greater flexibility and innovation in the classroom (INCS).
Charter schools are helping in closing the achievement gap that often happen in traditional public schools. They are raising the bar of what is possible and what should be expected in public education. Charter schools are effective for lower income and lower achieving students and aide in shattering low expectations and breaking through long-standing barriers that have prevented large numbers of students from underserved communities from achieving educational success. Studies have been shown some show charters outperforming traditional public schools. Compared to students in the matched public school, charter students are 5.2 percent more likely to be proficient in reading and 3.2 percent more likely to be proficient in math on their state's exams (Hoxby, p.1).
One of the many benefits of...
...1. Put the goal as make the Lake Eola Charter School as a K-8 center of education excellence 14 years ago.
First year: Convert the old parking garage to school. She thought that it is better to build the school on the road rather than build in isolated place. They used Lake Eola park as library, research, reading, downtown architecture for history and geometry lessons.
Second year: They concentrated in foundation of LECS.
Third year: Open school and take the first class without textbook, let the students use curriculum utilizing resources like web sites and practical exercises.
And rest for the year: Continue strengthen the curriculum, find new faculties and expand the school as high school.
There are some troubles in public school in America today because of the creation of charter schools. Charter school gets the funds from government but they operate individually as nonprofit organization.
They persuade the parents to select the charter school. As the result 350,000 families are approach to the charter school waiting list and 37% of the teachers in public school also preferred chartered school while 31% was opposed to them.
2. They let the students to use the public Resources because they don`t have any libraries and research rooms.
3. Utilize qualitative and quantitative analyses to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that LECS faced...
...Road To Success or Destruction for A Charter School
Jean M. Smith
MGT 330: Management for Organizations
Instructor Sheila Fry
November 19, 2012
Working in education is very interesting and also rewarding. Education is the backbone to society, yet is often taken for granted and underappreciated. School districts are just like a big organization or conglomerate, and are run like a business. Charter schools are slightly different than independent school districts, in that they are usually much smaller. However, one can really see the five functions of management at work in a charter school; planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Of the five functions of management, planning is the single most important function of management that affects the outcome of any organization. Charter schools are required to have their goals and how they plan to achieve those goals, written out and presented to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) in order to be granted a charter to start the school. Therefore, planning is the key.
Koinonia Community Learning Academy (KCLA), is a fairly new charter school in the heart of Third ward in Houston, Texas. This is its third school year and I just came aboard in July. Immediately I could tell that the planning function was not well thought out or executed; as a matter of fact, it appeared non-existent. When starting a school...
...Professor: Paul Catterson
Composition 1280, 63
April 15, 2013
Charter Schools the New Reform
Charter schools have been emerging recently all over the United States of America. This is a major issue for the public school system. Parents, teachers, and students need to understand what the growth of charter schools means to the school system as a whole. In the end, it is the death of free education as we know it. The long-term effect thatcharter schools will have on public education defers from the original idea of progressiveness. Charter schools promised to be the necessary change to the drowning public school system through innovation, creative teaching, and low class size (Weingarten 41). These teachers ran facilities that were to reach out to at risk students, have become a means of privatizing education. “It has become impossible to separate the rapid expansion of charter networks from efforts to privatize public education” (Davis 6).
There are over 59 charter schools opened in Chicago in the name of reform, there are plans to be more. Charter schools are publicly owned, but privately operated, facilities that take much needed resources from public schools. However, the rise of charter schools has done a poor job in satisfying the promise of restructuring and providing choice to parents. Charter schools have led to...
...Project Charter Document
Project Name: Basement Finish
Product/Process: Living Area
PROJECT CHARTER PURPOSE
This project will convert 1508 square feet of unfinished space in the basement of the Smith Residence, located in Maryland into a livable space. This space will be occupied on a full-time basis by the additional member of the household
With the addition of an additional family member into the household, it has become apparent that more living space is required. The upstairs living room is crowded with additional furniture. The bedroom which in the past has been the guest bedroom is being utilized and is not large enough for the additional family member. The bathroom upstairs becomes crowded during the morning rush, causing existing resources to be stretched to the maximum.
The space will be converted from an open unfinished area to a finished area comprised of: a bedroom (with walk-in closet), a bathroom, a family room, a general purpose storage closet, a kitchenette, a foyer and a dog room.
* 5. Goals and Objectives:
a. The project goal is to build a livable space for the additional member of the house hold.
b. The project manager will be responsible for providing the sponsor, Rhonda, with the project updates on a weekly basis pertaining to:
Charter schools were introduced as an alternative way of learning and have grown in numbers over the years. They are considered non-religious public schools operating under a contract, or charter, which governs its operations. In Arizona, the charter school effort has sold itself as a safe alternative for middle-class families looking for avoiding the network of under funded neighborhood schools. Charter schools are a good alternative means within the public school system for parents to look into. The teachers bring an increase in innovative methods that provide creative ways of teaching the students. Another purpose is having the teachers, both new in the system and ones that have experience, be responsible for their own education program and teaching methods. Teachers and student both get the opportunity to explore new ways of learning, different from how the traditional schools must teach their curriculum.
Traditional public schools system needs to rise to meet the standards and responsive or willing enough to make the changes it needs to be more effective. The number of students will increase and go to charter schools if the traditional public schools stay on the same academic state guidelines, which cover what they can teach and how children are evaluated.
The biggest drawback is how the funds are distributed for charter vs. public schools in Arizona. The cost of...