At the beginning of the book, Marcus Luttrell describes his childhood and his training to prepare for the Navy SEALs with Billy Shelton. After joining the U.S. Navy and completing SEAL training, Luttrell describes his posting in Afghanistan, in the Hindu Kush mountains of the Kunar province. With him are the rest of SEAL Team 10, except Shane E. Patton, for whom Danny Dietz was substituted. Their mission, Operation Red Wings, was to stake outside a village and capture or kill a leading Taliban member thought to be allied with Osama bin Laden. One night in June 2005, while hiding out, the team encountered three Afghanistan shepherds, including a boy. The team debated sparing or killing the three shepherds but after a vote, team leader Michael Murphy had to make the decision. To uphold the Rules of engagement, Murphy let the shepherds go. About an hour later, the four SEALs were surrounded by more than a hundred Taliban warriors. The two parties engaged, the odds drastically against the SEALs, all but Luttrell were killed in action. The New York Timessums up the story: "Mr. Luttrell was the only one of four men on the mission to survive after a violent clash with dozens of Taliban fighters. Eight members of the SEALs and eight Army special operations soldiers who came by helicopter to rescue the original four were shot down, and all aboard were killed. Mr. Luttrell was then rescued by a group of Afghan Pashtun villagers who harbored him in their homes for several days, protecting him from the Taliban and ultimately helping him to safety." The theme of hospitality as understood by the Pashtun culture
The book Lone Survivor is about Marcus Luttrell and his journey as a US Navy SEAL. He went through the impossible training of becoming a deadly warrior. One of his deployments were in the Hindu Kush mountains in the Kunar Province. He and his team were sent to go one a mission called “Operation Red Wing.” This operation was a stake out operation where the...
...number of evidences concern the “survivor syndrome” phenomenon has turned to a prevalent consequence to make inefficient redundant and downsizing, which demotes emotional, psychological and organizational repercussions faced by theses “survivors” (Wolfe, 2004).
The primary reason is the breach of the psychological contract of these survivors with employers when made redundant. Psychological contract which demonstrate above regard expectation what organization require and employees that expect in return, while reaction of redundancy have “violent” and changed previous employee relations of organization. These survivors will feel shocked, stressed and dear of future because they feel highly apprehensive that the whole matter might be repeated in the future (Ebadan, 1997). And the feeling of insecurity and distrust would lead them to desire to leave the organization (Schiro et al, 2009). Moreover, some of them will feel guilt about still having a job whilst colleagues have been laid off (Campbell, 2000). Such as people who are willing to made redundant, while they finically remained in organisation while their friends made redundancies because of unfair selecting process. These negative psychological changes will lead lower loyalty and motivation to the organization and in turn become the hidden costs that hinder the efficiency of redundancy effects.
However, even though many employers have realized changes of...
...In Sherman Alexie's story, "A Drug Called Tradition," from his story collection, The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, Victor, the narrator, speaks about what he calls the skeletons of the past and the future: "There are things you should learn. Your past is a skeleton walking one step behind you, and your future is a skeleton walking one step in front of you … Now, these skeletons are made of memories, dreams, and voices. And they can trap you in the in-between, between touching and becoming. But they're not necessarily evil, unless you let them be. What you have to do is keep moving, keep walking, in step with your skeletons … no matter what they do, keep walking, keep moving …"
This idea about skeletons, or the hauntings and the remnants of tradition, and the bones absent of flesh, but animate and manifest, is metonymic of the larger ideas and questions Alexie grapples with in this work: that is, how can a member or a performer of a tradition negotiate the seemingly incompatible drives of that tradition—the desire to perpetuate, to conserve, to maintain an idiom and its meaning, but at the same time, to accommodate the need to innovate, to create, and to move forward in a tradition, and explode and shape its word power? How can a participant in a tradition walk with the skeletons and traditions, but walk and innovate at a pace that avoids being trapped by their embrace?
My discussion of Alexie's work challenges the dogmatic and conservative...
March 8, 2015
Introduction to Literature
An Analysis of Sherman Alexie’s “The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven” and Langston Hughes’ “On the Road”
Alice Walker stated, “the most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don’t have any.” Power is a mental attribute. Many people put boundaries around themselves. These self-imposed boundaries result in anguish, despair, pity, and ultimately a sense of powerlessness. Sometimes these boundaries are not only self-imposed, but society-imposed. The protagonists in Sherman Alexie’s “The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven” and Langston Hughes’ “One the Road both suffer through a state of powerlessness imposed on them by a racial prejudice society. This state of powerlessness provides both a physical and mental effect upon the protagonists.
Victor, the protagonist in “The Long Ranger,” is a Native-American man that lives in Seattle, Washington. He lives with his girlfriend (who is a white woman) and drinks frequently. He is unemployed and eventually moves back to his reservation. Sargeant, the protagonist in “On the Road,” is a Black-American man. He is unemployed and looks for salvation at a church. The church refuses his pleas. He acts in rage, and subsequently, he is arrested and jailed.
Racism in America has a long-standing tradition from the “March of Tears” to “Bloody Sunday.” Racism is “the belief that all members...
...In Sherman Alexie's "The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven", the past is never really past. The aftershocks of 500 years of Native American persecution, oppression, and neglect continue to haunt the world of the reservation, in the form of alcoholism, poverty, and familial dysfunction. In spite of all this-or perhaps because of it-ancient tribal tradition/ritual lives on, if in a modified, more contemporary version. Throughout the story, the old ways-whether they be storytelling or vision seeking-serve to renew hope, and strengthen the bonds of the community. Thus, the past is both a destructive and a redemptive force within the novel. It is at once a source of continuing suffering and an antidote to that suffering.
These two opposing forces are best represented by two of the novel's principal characters: Victor and Thomas-Builds-the-Fire. Victor, raised in poverty by an alcoholic, "failure" of a father, can only see the past through dark colored glasses. For him, the past is a force that, more often than not, leaves disaster in its wake; the tragedy of the past begets the tragedy of the present, pain begets pain. It is an endless and indefatigable cycle. Thomas-Builds-the-Fire on the other hand, is a man who sees value in the past and in tradition-hence his role as a storyteller. When Thomas speaks of the past in his stories, he speaks of past Indian glory, of acts of bravery and sacrifice, and in such a past he sees hope for the future. For each...
Jesse BurnsProfessor, WolfeEnglish 102Essay 220 October 2014
The Great Atlantic & Pacific Trading Company
The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven written by Sherman Alexie and A&P written by John Updike are stories that represent the social constraint’s felt by each of the protagonists. Alexie’s story and Updike’s story complement each other in their context and have a very similar theme. Alexie’s story is about a young man who is held down by the racial indifferences he has encountered throughout his life. In turn, these indifferences have caused distrust and a subtle hatred towards whites and authority figures. Victor, the protagonist of the story, makes references to the indifferences felt through the allusion and symbolism in the story. The representation of the symbolism and the interpretation used shows that Sherman himself is using his writing as a means to come to terms with these deep-rooted feelings. In Updike’s story, the tone is not as dark and dismal as Alexie’s, though there is a similarity in the context. A&P represents a young man who is tired of being oppressed by the mundane routines of life. The protagonist in this story sees his life passing him by as he works at a grocery market. The epiphany is realized and comes to light when three young women come into the store wearing nothing but bathing suits. The symbolism and allusion the writer uses in this story also signifies the repressed emotions of feeling trapped by...
...Survival=Anger X Imagination. Imagination is the only weapon on the reservation.
--Sherman AlexieThe Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven
Key to Survival
Sherman Alexie's novel The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven depicts how reservation Indian's survive their hardships that mainstream society has put on them, with the use of emotion and imagination. Survival for Alexie's Indians is, "not to slow dance with [their] skeletons (21)." The reservation skeletons are the anger of the past and the dreams of the future that each Indian needs to combine to survive in the present. Alexie's novel shows these different phases through his characters that are trying to find the combination to survival.
In Funhouse Aunt Nezzy is trapped within a patriarchal society, which has oppressed her talents and her dreams. Living in an environment where there is no respect for women has suppressed Aunt Nezzy's ability to understand her path in life. Her craft of making buckskin outfits gives her, her only hope, " a woman comes along who can carry the weight of this dress on her back, then we'll have found the one who will save us all (76)." Aunt Nezzy's imagination gives her strength by looking into the future for hope of a savior however; her environment helps her realize that she is lingering in her dreams.
Anger from past oppression from Aunt Nezzy's family and her dreams of a savior triggers a reaction that helps Aunt Nezzy's balance her...
...Sherman Alexie’s composition of short stories, called The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fist Fight in Heaven, clearly describes aspects of Indian culture that many people wouldn’t already know. The stories are informative, descriptive and interesting. Disappointment is a depressing frustrating and repeated theme throughout almost every one of Sherman Alexie’s short stories.
One of the very first introductions of disappointment to the reader is when the father of one of the main characters, Victor, leaves him and his mother “I know he’s coming back tonight.” (34).This portrayal of disappointment shows how much pain his father had caused him by just leaving. He couldn’t imagine why he would leave him. Victor stays on the porch the day his dad leaves because it is like part of him will not accept that his father really did leave for good this time and is never coming back.
The next disappointment happens soon after when he misses all the shots in the basketball game. “While I looked at all those close-ups of death and destruction, I lost it. I think everybody in that room, everybody on the team, lost that feeling of immortality.” (46) Before the time when they were all waiting for the coach and the game to start they started to think how those injuries relate to their situation. “We went out and lost the championship game by twenty points. I missed every shot I took. I missed everything.” (47) The coach showed up late not bothering to give a pep talk or any...
The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fist Fight in Heaven Analysis
In The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fist Fight in Heaven, Sherman Alexie expresses the modern Native American experience throughout a series of short stories. Throughout these stories Alexie portrays the lives of Native Americans in a dismal and melancholic way. Most of his characters have failed or forgotten their dreams due to their problems with alcohol. Sherman Alexie’s emphasis on Native American’s issues with alcohol gives us insight into how alcohol has destructive effects on Native American society and culture.
Alcoholism is a common theme within Native American society. Some characters became so infatuated with the sensation of being intoxicated that they actually believe being drunk solves all of their problems. Natives think that,
“one more beer could save the world. One more beer and every chair would be comfortable. One more beer and the light bulb in the bathroom would never burn out. One more beer and he would love her forever. One more beer and he would sign any treaty for her (Alexie 88).”
Alcohol creates a fake reality in the minds of the natives. It makes them believe that they are no longer responsible for their affairs, and dealing with their problems. However, alcohol only serves to make their lives worse.
Alcohol was the root cause of the separation between Native Americans and mainstream America. The interactions the average American has...