PRACTICES’ AND PATH-DEPENDENCY
CRIC, The University of Manchester
Professor Rod Coombs & Richard Hull
CRIC Discussion Paper No 2
Centre for Research on Innovation and Competition
The University of Manchester
Tom Lupton Suite
University Precinct Centre
Oxford Road, Manchester
*The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the
ESRC through its ‘Research Programme on Innovation’ for the work on which this paper is based.
An increasing number of researchers and commentators have recently been turning their attention to 'knowledge management'1, and particularly the role of knowledge management in innovation2. It seems that there are two major underlying influences which are at work in these discussions, and that they have both complementary and contradictory features.
The first of these influences can be seen as 'internal' to innovation research and it is the literature which synthesises the received findings of 'innovation studies' into an evolutionary economics perspective on technical change. The central feature of this work for our purposes is its weaving together of the observed path dependency of innovation, with the firmspecificity of the routines which generate innovation. For example, Metcalfe & de Liso3 elaborate the idea that a business unit will have a specific 'normal design configuration', a shared mental framework of fundamental design concepts relating to specific technologies, providing the 'operational route' to specific artefacts. Thus the perspective in this literature links knowledge to innovation by focusing on firm-specific routines which stabilise certain bodies of knowledge, embed them in the shared understandings within the firm, and provide templates for deploying that knowledge to produce innovations which have a distinctive organisational 'signature'.
The second underlying influence in the 'knowledge management' literature has arisen at the interface of innovation research and management research. It derives from the perceived increase in importance of knowledge as a factor of production and as a driving force in broader changes in the nature of contemporary economies, and in the enterprises which operate in those economies. One of the key reference points in the emergence of a new focus on 'knowledge management' in enterprises is the work of Nonaka4. Arising originally from empirical studies of new product development in Japanese firms, Nonaka has developed a model of the various ways in which organisations create knowledge and has suggested a style of management and an organisational structure for best managing the knowledge creation process, namely the 'hypertext organisation'. Central to the model (as indeed to much other work on knowledge management) is Michael Polanyi's distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge. Nonaka argues that tacit and explicit knowledge can be converted from one to the other, and his main focus is managing the interactions between the four 'modes of knowledge conversion'. Another major contributor is Dorothy Leonard-Barton5 who bases her discussion
more firmly on the 'core competence' strategy literature and has a focus on what she calls "the whole system of knowledge management" (ibid, pp 271-2, original emphasis), which is seen to be an integral element of competitive advantage, or 'core technological capability'. Her specific interest is in the 'key knowledge-building' activities
shared problem solving,
implementing and integrating new technical processes and tools, experimenting and prototyping, and importing and absorbing technological and market knowledge.
In many ways, these two perspectives - the evolutionary economics perspective and the 'knowledge-centred-model of the enterprise' - are compatible with each other. At the very least it can be argued that they have considerable potential to enrich and illuminate each other....
...Higher School of Economics
National Research University, Perm
Knowledge Chain in Rosatom Corporation: strengths and weaknesses (on the base of the book «Rosatom is Sharing Knowledge»)
Executed by the students:
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………..3Knowledge Chain in Rosatom Corporation: strengths and weaknesses…………...4
For the past several decades knowledge has become extremely important asset of a company. Nowadays large organizations and even small companies have to address the issues of KnowledgeManagement in order to increase flexibility and efficiency, reduce lead time and involve people as much as possible. As it was mentioned in 1996 by McKern [1; 13-18], the major forces of change are the following: globalization, higher degrees of complexity, new technologies, increased competition, changing client demands, and changing economic and political structures. So companies are starting to understand that the core and sustainable resource of competitive advantages are their employees. In other words all the...
...This is a summary of Knowledgemanagement and organizational culture: a theoretical integrative journal by Rajnish Kumar Rai, a police officer who at the time was based at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad India. For this research, he used a conceptual method by comparing previous findings and thoughts.
At first, the author underlines the importance of knowledge in today’s rapid changing world and how most of the experts agree on the continuous improvement of knowledge as one of the most critical factor for an organization to survive, and knowledgemanagement takes a large part in it. Furthermore, recognizing and understanding the linkage between the knowledge creation and the organization values are what the organizations should be doing first before applying the knowledgemanagement in the organization. A mismanagement of knowledge creation will lead the organization not into an innovation but confusion. Unfortunately, this important part, the knowledge creation, does not have a framework for an effective and systematical approach to be used in different type of organizations. There are a lot of theories that support this idea but they do not have a practical approach of how to be implemented.
Subsequently, the author acknowledges that many researches supported the theory...
Sins of KnowledgeManagement
core tenet of any organizational learning project is that without
detecting and correcting errors in "what we know" and "how we
learn," an organization's knowledge deteriorates, becomes obsolete,
and can result in "bad" decisions. Because systematic attention to
knowledgemanagement is relatively recent, it is particularly important to detect
these errors so that knowledgemanagement does not become yet another management fad that promised much but delivered little. If we do not identify and
try to resolve these errors, "what we know" about knowledgemanagement may
become little else but mythology. As a consequence, we will be faced with the
ultimate knowledge irony: efforts to manage knowledge are themselves based
upon faulty knowledge principles.
The purpose of this article is to draw attention to a set of pervasive
knowledgemanagement errors. These reflections are based on the authors'
observing or partaking in over one hundred knowledge projects over the past
five years or so. The focus is on fundamental errors, that is, errors that if left
uneorreeted inhibit genuine knowledge from being developed and leveraged.
These are errors associated...
...1. Company Overview
1.1. Business Overview
Mystique is currently involved in fashion clothing business. Unlike other clothing companies, Mystique owns all of its retailing, designing and manufacturing operations. It sells a range of women’s and men’s clothing which aims to give a personalised and satisfaction experience to its customers. The business’s headquarters is located in India but the entire Sri Lankan management is handled in Sri Lankan and currently it has 4 outlets in Colombo and Kandy.
1.1.1. Product Overview
Figure : Mystique’s Product
Currently Mystique is targeting mainly on causal and party ware for both customer segment. It provides a right quality product for an affable cost which can be effort by working class to upper uppers. Based on the design and material quality the price of the product varies.
1.1.2. Service Overview
Figure : Mystique's Services
All our products will be serving the current client’s requirements. In order to serve our customer better, we provide other services which are mentioned in the above figure. Exchange and return, reservation and customer services are provided by our retailer outlet team and the promotion are decided by our marketing team (refer organisational structure).
1.2. Vision and Mission
Vision – To make consistent design improvements based on the emerging trends that will enhance customer satisfaction.
Mission – “Build a unique portfolio of branded, trendy and unique...
...IS STRASSMANN’S ‘KNOWLEDGEMANAGEMENT’ AN IMPORTANT METRIC
By: Masoud. Noordeh (DBA student)
In today’s dynamic business environment, Knowledgemanagement systems facilitate organizational learning and knowledge creation. They are designed to provide rapid feedback to knowledge workers and significantly improve business performance. This paper examines the concept of knowledgemanagement metric from the view point of Paul Strassmann.
Keywords: Knowledge, Performance Management Metric, KnowledgeManagement.
Knowledgemanagement has become one of the major performance management and companies have embraced the concept and invested in systems, people, and information technologies to this purpose. On the other hand, there has been the pressure to move away from the traditional performance management metrics which are considered to be ‘backward looking accounting based performance measurement systems’ that only focuses on traditional cost accounting (Bourne et al. 2000).
Knowledgemanagement has been introduced by Strassmann (1999), Drucker (1995), and others as an important metric for measuring performance. According to Knapp (1998), Knowledgemanagement transfers...
...KNOWLEDGEMANAGEMENTKnowledgemanagement is a process of transforming information and intellectual assets into enduring value.
KnowledgeManagement has two type:
1. Tacit Knowledge
Highly personal, means the knowledge is unrecorded and unarticulated and it’s hard to formalized and therefore difficult, if not sometimes impossible to communicate.
Formal and systematic, and can be easily to communicated and share, for example in a book or a database in a library.
Knowledge Hierarchy, to transfer tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge we need to use Human Resource Management.
easier to access KNOWLEDGEMANAGEMENT
We need knowledgemanagement to reacting to new business opportunities and to build brain sensitivity to brain drain. So that we could create, transfer and apply knowledge with the purpose of better achieving objectives. Because knowledge is really important to achieve the goals.
What forces us to have knowledgemanagement first is increasing in Domain Complexity means that is intricacy of internal and external processes, increased competition, and the rapid advancement of technology all contribute to...
KnowledgeManagement, Social Networks and Innovation
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Literature review 3
The development of social network and social media 5
The process of innovation and knowledge transmission in the organization 7
Case of American Express 9
Analysis and Discussion 11
We know that the innovation is the power to push the development of our society, and organizations are the pioneer of innovation, at the...
...John Naisbitt: “We are drowning in information but starved for knowledge.” (Lewis, p. 4)
In today’s Information Age organizations are looking more and more towards the productive manipulation of information to succeed and stay competitive. Increases in technology give rise to an increased emphasis on the human aspects of the socio-technical system: a complex system where workers and technology interact together to achieve some common objective. Accomplishing business objectives involves better understanding and implementing of technical terms: data – raw facts without meaning; information – meaningful data; and knowledge – understanding gained through taking action based on information. Organizational learning works within the confines of this data-information-knowledge progression in increasing degrees to form knowledge. As organizational learning increases, it augments and refines organizational knowledge. Knowledgemanagement (KM) provides a way for businesses to optimize organizational learning and organizational knowledge by helping them make better decisions and take more productive actions. KM is concerned with two areas in the facilitation of organizational learning and organizational knowledge: the management of information, and the management of people.
Organizations add to and...