Modes of Knowledge Conversion
Knowledge Developer's Skill Set
Knowledge Codification in the KM System Life Cycle
What Does Knowledge Codification Involve?
Converting “tacit knowledge” into “explicit usable form” Converting “undocumented” information into “documented” information Representing and organizing knowledge before it is accessed It is making institutional knowledge visible, accessible, and usable for decision making Benefits of Knowledge Codification
Instruction/training—promoting training of junior personnel based on captured knowledge of senior employees Prediction—inferring the likely outcome of a given situation and flashing a proper warning or suggestion for corrective action Diagnosis—addressing identifiable symptoms of specific causal factors Planning/scheduling—mapping out an entire course of action before any steps are taken The knowledge developer should note the following points before initiating knowledge codification: Recorded knowledge is often difficult to access (because it is either fragmented or poorly organized). Diffusion of new knowledge is too slow.
Knowledge is nor shared, but hoarded (this can involve political implications). Often knowledge is not found in the proper form.
Often knowledge is not available at the correct time when it is needed. Often knowledge is not present in the proper location where it should be present. Often the knowledge is found to be incomplete.
What organizational goals will the
codified knowledge serve?
Why is the knowledge useful?
How would one codify knowledge?
Modes of Knowledge Conversion
Conversion from tacit to tacit knowledge produces socialization where knowledge developer looks for experience in case of knowledge capture. Conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge involves externalizing, explaining or clarifying tacit knowledge via analogies, models, or metaphors. Conversion from explicit to tacit knowledge involves internalizing (or fitting explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge. Conversion from explicit to explicit knowledge involves combining, categorizing, reorganizing or sorting different bodies of explicit knowledge to lead to new knowledge. Nonaka's Model of Knowledge Creation & Transformation (SECI Model) Codifying Knowledge An organization must focus on the following before
What organizational goals will the codified knowledge serve? What knowledge exists in the organization that can address these goals?
How useful is the existing knowledge for codification?
How would someone codify knowledge?
Codifying tacit knowledge (in its entirety) in a knowledge base or repository is often difficult because it is usually developed and internalized in the minds of the human experts over a long period of time. Some Codification Tools
Visual representation of knowledge, not a repository
Identify strengths to exploit and missing knowledge gaps to fill Can be applied in Knowledge Capture
A straightforward directory that points people to where they can find certain expertise
Capture both explicit and tacit knowledge in documents and in experts’ heads
Knowledge Map (Relationships among Departments)
A popular knowledge map used in human resources is a skills planner in which employees are matched to jobs. Steps to build the map: A structure of the knowledge requirements should be developed. Knowledge required of specific jobs...
...Question 1 – What is Knowledge Management?
Elaborate Your Views:
PART A (i)
A good operational definition of knowledge management is the deliberate introduction of an
improved and more effective information environment
(Koenig, 1999, p. 77)
Knowledge, by definition: is broad and wide in its scope. This statement seems to imply knowledge to
be of an explicit nature. Explicit knowledge is “information or knowledge that is set out in tangible form”
(Koenig, May 2012): which refers to those information which has been put in words or writing, for example,
rules, procedures, user manuals and databases.
Koenig scopes the statement from a practical and enterprise viewpoint, by using words such as
“operational definition”. We assume that Koenig relates the concept into operational practice and apply this
discipline to support the routine functions or activities of a certain specific business domain or organization.
Similarly “deliberate introduction” implies that there is a systematic methodology, possibly with
gradual introduction and careful planning. It could well-meant that users and owners of this knowledge
management system are well-equipped with skills and are being educated with appropriate trainings.
The most important aspect of this statement is that it defines the objective of knowledge
management briefly and it illustrates...
...School of Economics
National Research University, Perm
Knowledge Chain in Rosatom Corporation: strengths and weaknesses (on the base of the book «Rosatom is Sharing Knowledge»)
Executed by the students:
Knowledge Chain in Rosatom Corporation: strengths and weaknesses…………...4
For the past several decades knowledge has become extremely important asset of a company. Nowadays large organizations and even small companies have to address the issues of Knowledge Management in order to increase flexibility and efficiency, reduce lead time and involve people as much as possible. As it was mentioned in 1996 by McKern [1; 13-18], the major forces of change are the following: globalization, higher degrees of complexity, new technologies, increased competition, changing client demands, and changing economic and political structures. So companies are starting to understand that the core and sustainable resource of competitive advantages are their employees. In other words all the knowledge about...
...The codification of the Criminal Code has marked a watershed on Australian legal jurisprudence. In this essay I will discuss the problems that may occur when interpreting the Criminal Code (The Code), the creation of uniformity and the also accessibility that the Code creates.
The Criminal Code WA is a piece of legislation that has been passed by parliament the states that have enacted this legislation are referred to as Code jurisdictions, and the states that have not are known as Common Law jurisdictions. Since the development of the code it has impacted the code jurisdictions largely by making the Criminal Law more accessible to people due to the fact that it is readily available. In a journal by Matthew Goode he elaborated on the fact that the code was easy to locate:
“Being easy to find means that a Criminal Code can be published as a paperback. The citizen can buy the book and read it..... Society expects all of its citizens to know the law.... How can we expect the citizen to know the law, let alone try to understand it, debate it, and contribute to its change or defence if it is scattered all over the statute book and hidden in hundreds of volumes of law reports, many of which are published thousands of miles away?”
As a result of the code being easily accessible lawyers, judges and even law students can access any section of the code in order to determine what the elements of an offence are and also the possible penalty that can be ordered by a...
...Organizational Knowledge creation
Knowledge creation is a dynamic capability that enables firms to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage on the market. The most important models elaborated for organizational knowledge creation are: Nonaka’s model, Nissen’s model, Boisot’s model and the EO_SECI model. The two predominant goals of organization are the generation and the application of knowledge, because the capacity to generate and apply organizational knowledge is the source of competitive advantage. Also, it is very important to create knowledge better than the competitors in order to cope on the market.
From the point of view of Nonaka, knowledge creation is “a dynamic human process of justifying a personal belief toward the truth and embodying a technical skill through practice”. Therefore, the knowledge-creation theory is based on the assumption that knowledge includes human values and ideas. The knowledge vision of a firm results from the strategic management of the firm and it gives a direction to the process if knowledge creation. Leadership in the knowledge-creating firm is based on the concept of distributing leadership, rather than on leadership conceived as rigid and fixed control mechanism. Organizational culture defines how a person is identified within the organization and...
Knowledge is an important element in every individuals’ lives but most importantly to businesses to succeed in today’s economy. The successfulness of knowledge is through many strategies that involve knowledge creation, knowledge transfer and knowledge management and also by using advanced IT systems through the economic growth and change (Anantatmula and Kanungo, 2010). The purpose of this report is to evaluate how successful the KM strategies are in place within Apple and to evaluate how good practices are shared. Also, the report will show how knowledge management tools are applied to achieve good practices supported by current models, theories, principles and practical examples.
Apple is a technological based organisation that creates computers, software and many other Apple branded products. It is well-known globally with over 300 stores around the world (Apple Inc., 2011). The products innovated by Apple have strong positioning within the market as they are differentiated from other organisations (Mintel, 2011). Apple creates a customer based profile by collecting information about customers and their preferences. Customers register their details on Apples website when initial products and or services are purchased like iCloud, MobileMe and iTunes, as well as many other products and services. This detailed information is then aggregated and stored explicitly on...
...Gan, Y., & Zhu, Z. (2007). A Learning Framework for Knowledge Building and Collective Wisdom Advancement in Virtual Learning Communities. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (1), 206-226.
A Learning Framework for Knowledge Building and Collective Wisdom Advancement in Virtual Learning Communities
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1V6, Canada Tel: +1 416 923-6641 ext 2454[email protected]
Educational Information Network Center, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, China Tel: +86 21 62232654 [email protected] ABSTRACT
This study represents an effort to construct a learning framework for knowledge building and collective wisdom advancement in a virtual learning community (VLC) from the perspectives of system wholeness, intelligence wholeness and dynamics, learning models, and knowledge management. It also tries to construct the zone of proximal development (ZPD) of VLCs based on the combination of Vygotsky’s theory of zone of proximal development and the trajectories of knowledge building. The aim of a VLC built on the theories of constructivism, situated learning, and knowledge building, etc., is to apply individual intelligence to online learning, bring the advantages of collaborative learning and collective wisdom into play, solve difficult problems in independent learning,...
...John Naisbitt: “We are drowning in information but starved for knowledge.” (Lewis, p. 4)
In today’s Information Age organizations are looking more and more towards the productive manipulation of information to succeed and stay competitive. Increases in technology give rise to an increased emphasis on the human aspects of the socio-technical system: a complex system where workers and technology interact together to achieve some common objective. Accomplishing business objectives involves better understanding and implementing of technical terms: data – raw facts without meaning; information – meaningful data; and knowledge – understanding gained through taking action based on information. Organizational learning works within the confines of this data-information-knowledge progression in increasing degrees to form knowledge. As organizational learning increases, it augments and refines organizational knowledge. Knowledge management (KM) provides a way for businesses to optimize organizational learning and organizational knowledge by helping them make better decisions and take more productive actions. KM is concerned with two areas in the facilitation of organizational learning and organizational knowledge: the management of information, and the management of people.
Organizations add to and refine their knowledge base...
...Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm
ROBERT M. GRANT, 1996, SMJ
Presentation of the article
The different theories of the firm when applied to the field of strategic management help explain firm performance and the determinants of strategic choice from different perspectives. The knowledge-based view, through its focus upon knowledge as the most strategically important firm resource, is seen here as an extension of the resource-based view. The issues with which the KBV concerns itself extend beyond the traditional concerns of strategic management and tap into the domain of the theory of the firm – the nature of coordination within the firm, organizational structure, the role of management, the allocation of decision-making rights, firm boundaries, and innovation.
In this article, the firm is conceptualized as an institution for integrating knowledge. The primary contribution of the paper is in exploring the coordination mechanisms through which firms integrate the specialist knowledge of their members. In contrast to earlier literature, knowledge is viewed as residing within the individual, and the primary role of the organization is knowledge application.
Grant avoids defining knowledge and concentrates on establishing those characteristics of knowledge which have critical implications for management. He looks at several features from...