• Caliphate• Hajj- Trip required by Muslims to Mecca once a lifetime • Dar Al Islam- House of Peace (lands controlled by Muslim governments) • Dar Al Harb- House of War (lands controlled by Non-Muslim governments) • Sunni- Main Sect of Islam • Shia- Secondary sect of Islam (based on population size)
Religion of Islam
Founded by Prophet Muhammad in 610 C.E. Monotheistic religion Qur’an is the holy book Follows Judeo-Christian line adhering to the same prophets • Two major branches with several sub-sects each • • • •
• With 1.6 Billion people, Islam is the worlds 2nd largest religion • Sizeable minorities in almost every country around the world
History of Islam
• Islam founded by Prophet Muhammad in 610 C.E. • Rapid growth through the Umayyad Caliphate 750 C.E.
With Muhammad’s death in 632 C.E. a dispute between his followers occurred. Most followed his Father in Law (Abu Bakr) and became what is now known as Sunni. The remainder followed his cousin (Ali ibn Abi Talib) and became known as Shia. While the two groups have significant differences they still belong to the same overarching religion. Their tenets of faith differ however.
Sunni and Shia Tenets of Faith
5 Pillar’s of Islam (Sunni) 1. Shahadah (belief or confession of faith) 2. Salat (worship in the form of prayer) 3. Sawm Ramadan (fasting during the holy month of Ramadan) 4. Zakat (Alms or Charitable giving) 5. Hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca)
Ancillaries of the Faith (Shia) 1. Salat (Prayer) 2. Sawm (Fast) 3. Hajj (Piligrimage) 4. Zakah (charity) 5. Khums (One-fifth) 6. Jihad (struggle) 7. Amr-Bil-Ma’ruf (commanding what is good) 8. Nahi-Anil-Munkar (forbid what is evil) 9. Tawalla (Expressing love towards good) 10. Tabarra (Expressing disassociation from Evil)
As years have passed, Islam has become a major political force in the contemporary world, arguably through means of terrorism and guerilla warfare. The word Islam actually means, “submission” to the will of Allah, “God” which is similar to how terrorists tend to try and submit others by force to follow said will. These terrorists’ objective is to spread Islamic faith and politics by ridding the world of non-believers to ultimately achieve a pure Islamic state worldwide. There are many reasons why they, the terrorists, believe it to be necessary to pursue such radical goals but the one that sticks out the most is the ultimate goal of getting rid of the Nation of Satan or rather the United States of America. Democracy, to them, is a tool of the Devil because the Qur’an states that only Allah can rule mankind, and man should follow accordingly.
History is full of tales of religious radicals using something that should otherwise be seen as beautiful and turning it into a catalyst for revolution so they can make the change they wish upon the world. Hitler did it but his ultimate goal was for his followers to see him as a divine leader and no other was higher than him and of course you can look back to the leader of ancient Persia, Xerxses the Great, and see another time when a leader thought himself to be divine and ruled by fear. Well, in the case of radical Islam there is no...
...HEORY OF ISLAMIC BANKING AND ITS MACROECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS
The earliest writings on the subject of Islamic banking and finance date back to the forties of the twentieth century (Siddiqi: 1981, pp.29-30) and the earliest practice can be traced to early sixties (Ahmad: 1995, pp.21-23). The literature showed ambivalence between the model of an intermediary designed after conventional commercial banks and one like an investment company serving individuals seeking profits as well as the community needing development. Models of commercial banking based on two-tier mudarabah came from economists aspiring to build an alternative to a system of banking and finance hinged on interest. Some of them placed the issue in the larger context of the struggle between capitalism and socialism in which Muslim intellectuals projected Islam as having a different approach resulting in a distinct economic system with its own financial institutions. Community initiatives looked forward to something workable while avoiding interest.
Goals of Islamic Banking
The first and most important target of an Islamic bank is to serve God. In other words, the Islamic financial institution: “must develop a distinctive corporate culture, the main purpose of which is to create a collective morality and spirituality which, when combined with the production of goods and services, sustains the growth and advancement of the...
...Fundamentalism refers to either political or religious movements which are based on strict believe and support to certain rules and principles. It is often equated with the rejection of modernity and its secular variant in both the democratic and non democratic societies. (Edwards M B, 2006) More Specifically, Islamic fundamentalism involves having diverse political as well as social movements in various Muslim countries that have the shared goal of creating moreIslamic oriented states and societies, which are based on the fundamental principles and values of Islam. The Islamic fundamentalists have the aim of implementing the Sharia (Islamic Law) to public lives. Sharia could be to reffered to as in the court of law, palaces or even private settings. The Sharia as well as the Qurán emphasise on the five fundamental Islamic obligations which the muslims must follow. (Robinson D, 2004) the first one is known as Shahada which is the testimony that there is no other god but Allah and that Muhammed is the prophet of God. The second is Salat. This is the ritual prayer that muslims must perform five times a day. The third is Zakat. This is having to help the poor and needy and relief the debtors as well as the welfare of travelers. The fourth is known as Sawm which is the fasting once a year during the month of Ramadan, and the final obligation is hajj. performing the Pilgrimige to Mecca atleast once in a...
...Report in ED 501-Philosophy of Education
The Concept of Philosophy in Islam
EVANGELISTA, JAMAIKA S.
DR. NILO E. COLINARES
The Concept of Philosophy in Islam (Islamic Philosophy)
* Ibn Sina - "Philosophy is the exercise of intellect, enabling man to know Being as it is in itself. It is incumbent upon man to do this by the exercise of his intellect, so that he may ennoble his soul and make it perfect, and may become a rational scientist, and get the capacity of eternal bliss in hereafter."
* It is not necessarily concerned with religious issues.
They have the following:
HADITH(the traditional sayings of the Prophet)
SUNNA(the practices of their community)
FIQH(Islamic law, which discusses particular problems concerning how Muslims ought to behave)
* It is not exclusively produced by Muslims.
* Philosophy helps the Muslim to understand the truth using different techniques from those directly provided through Islam
* It is the continuous search for Hikma(Wisdom)
Nature and Origin
* Philosophy in its fullest sense began in the third century of hijra(The hijra was in 622 ad; it is the first year according to the Muslim calendar)
* The main sources of early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam and Greek philosophy. Greek philosophy because most their works on philosophy like logic, medicine...
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture.
What is Islam?
* The name of the religion is Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word meaning "peace" and "submission.“
* Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one's life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed.
* The same Arabic root word gives us "Salaam alaykum," ("Peace be with you"), the universal Muslim greeting.
* The Moslem faith flourished in the countries of Southern Asia and North Africa.
* Other important communities include Zanzibar, Madagascar and China.
* In the 20th century mobility, Islam was brought throughout the world as far as Sydney and South shields.
* The spread of Islam has been frequently associated with military conquest, racial movements and in some cases with the consequent displacement of established populations.
* The most important were the Arab expansion northwards and westwards out of the Arabian peninsula, and the drive of the Turkish and Mongol groups South, Southeast and Southwest of Central Asia.
The islamic world
* The countries into which Islam first expanded were already rich in building tradition and the important techniques of exploitation...
...Islamic Fundamentalism: Myth and Reality Confronted?
Dr Zaniah Marshallsay
School of International Studies University of South Australia
Refereed paper presented to the Australasian Political Studies Association Conference University of Adelaide 29 September – 1 October 2004
Zaniah Marshallsay: Islamic Fundamentalism
Introduction Language is power, and terms consistently used take on a reality that truth belies. Thus with the termIslamic fundamentalism, which has been bandied about and used lightly and interchangeably with Islamism, Political Islam, Radical Islam, and even Islamic terrorism. But, do they mean the same thing? In much of the literature (including media reports) on Islam and the political activities of certain Muslims, the tendency is to depict the phenomenon of fundamentalism as the spectre of religious fanaticism which gives rise to terrorism, and in the process induces fear of Islam, the religion. However, as many writers have pointed out, not only is the term used as a blanket description of the militant ideology of contemporary Islamic movements, but subsuming the various Islamic movements (political, social, cultural, economic and local) under the general rubric of Islamic fundamentalist movements blinds us to the divergencies, internal divisions and evolutionary nature of the various groups. It also prevents us from engaging in a...
...\10/.42, No. 2, 2006
doi: 10.1 11 1/j.1468-4497.2006.00200.x
BASSAM MAALI, PETER CASSON AND CHRISTOPHER NAPIER
Social Reporting by Islamic Banks
The last thirty years have witnessed the appearance and rapid expansion of Islamic banking both inside and outside the Islamic world. Islamic banks provide financial products that do not violate Sharia, the Islamic law of human conduct. The Islamic principles upon which the banks claim to operate give an importantrole to social issues. Applying these principles, we develop a benchmark set of social disclosures appropriate to Islamic banks. These are then compared, using a disclosure index approach, the actual social disclosures contained in the annual reports of twenty-nine Islamic banks (located in sixteen countries) to this benchmark. In addition, content analysis is undertaken to measure the volume of social disclosures. Our analysis suggests that social reporting by Islamic banks falls significantly short of our expectations. The results of the analysis also suggest that banks required to pay the Islamic religious tax Zakah provide more social disclosures than banks not subject to Zakah. Key words: Islamic banks; Islamic values; Social reporting; Zakah.
Studies of accounting and accountability from an Islamic perspective have been...
...Note: This Introduction appears in Christopher Napier & Roszaini Haniffa (eds) Islamic Accounting (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2011), pp. xiii-xx. The printed version may differ slightly from the text set out below, and the printed version should be regarded as definitive.
An Islamic Perspective of Accounting: Introduction and Overview Christopher Napier and Roszaini Haniffa
The emergence of Islamic banks and otherIslamic financial institutions since the 1970s has stimulated a modern literature that has identified itself as addressing “Islamic Accounting”. What does the term “Islamic Accounting” mean in the rapidly growing contemporary literature? Napier (2009) has proposed three interrelated aspects: a historically-oriented sense, in which “Islamic Accounting” refers to ideas and practices in Muslim-majority countries in past periods; a practice-oriented sense, where the focus is on how entities describing themselves as “Islamic” account for and report their transactions and activities; and a principle-oriented sense, where fundamental accounting concepts and methods form a coherent body of ideas and practices based on the religion of Islam.
The word “Islam” means total submission or surrender to the will of God (Allah), and a Muslim is one who so submits. However, this raises the question of how Muslims can determine what the will of...