Desert: Arid landscape
What made life possible: Camels (endurance and several images in the Qur’an), horses Nomadic way of life: from the highland and to lowland (movement): looking for water and pastures the camel made life in the arabian peninsula possible: he made the mvt & trade possible Transhumance: mvt from high to lowl depending on the season fetching for water & grazing. this mvt was made possible thanks to humans & animals
pockets of sedentary life in 2 main cities:
YATHRIB: Oasis: water makes life possible: many palm trees
MECCA: it is where the Ka'ba is located (hajj) + trade because when people come to worship their gods, they bring goods to exchange… (religion + trade) Customary laws: “3orf” transmitted orally from generation to generation: each tribe respect each tribe’s land
Smallest unit in Arab society: Nuclear family (parents + children + concubines) lives in BAYT Polygamy is lawful from a religious point of view (4 wives)
Before 610, women had so status & were considered as property that you own. Female infanticide (bury the female babies because the families want male heirs) Patriarchy: male dominate the state (society)
Extended family: several tents close to each other: “Dar” Several extended families: Clan (Hashim: clan of the prophet) Several Clans: tribe (Quraysh: tribe of the prophet)
Several tribes: confederacies: union (Qahtan & Adnan)
“Asabiyya”: group solidarity: defend the members of your group against violence or aggression.
Retaliation: “eye for an eye” the system of justice that was based on the concept of 'asabiyya.
- Monotheists: Jews, Christianity and Islam
- Polytheism: believe in many gods
- Paganism: believe in animate (cow) and inanimate (rock)
- Atheism: believe in any God
- Idolatry: Form of polytheism: believe in idols (statues)
Life in Makkah
- HUB: meeting place
- KA’BA: market place and shrine (360 idols)
- Habitants: oral society
- Mu’allaqat: put famous poems on the KA’BA (platform for poets to come & talk about their tribes: self-promotion)
- Bibliography of the prophet: “Sira”. He was orphan: impact on his life in Sira
-Life of the prophet
- 570: the year of the elephant and birth of the prophet in the tribe of Quraysh. During that year, Abraha, the king of Yemen marched on Mecca with his large army and elephants in order to destroy the Ka'ba but his elephant(s) stopped at the boundary of Mecca and refused to enter.
- His parents: Amina and Abdullah: his father died before he was born and his mother when he was 6
-Orphan: starting at disadvantage, he was from the Quraysh tribe raised by his grand parents (Abd al Mutalib and Fatima)
- He was sent to the desert: healthy physical and psychological conditions to raise children
- Hamza: his uncle played a mentor role
- He was being prepared for something big, kind of divine protection even before receiving the message
- He was know for his honesty, generosity and anti-corruption
- Nickname: Al Amine, the trustworthy in Mecca
- His inheritance: a slave “Baraka”, who was a little older than him
- His spent most of his time in the cave of Hira thinking and wondering about the meaning of life
- He was against polytheism
- He is the seal of the prophets (last one)
- 2 major stories:
The night journey (621): Muhammad’s travel: The Isra and Mi'raj: Muhammad travels on the steed Buraq to "the farthest mosque" where he leads other prophets in prayer. He then ascends to heaven where he speaks to God, who gives Muhammad instructions to take back to the faithful regarding the details of prayer.
The story of the black stone: before Islam, the Ka’ba was restored many times and Muhammad had the honor to put the stone inside the Ka’ba. all clans wanted to have the honor to put the stone...
...Report in ED 501-Philosophy of Education
The Concept of Philosophy in Islam
EVANGELISTA, JAMAIKA S.
DR. NILO E. COLINARES
The Concept of Philosophy in Islam (Islamic Philosophy)
* Ibn Sina - "Philosophy is the exercise of intellect, enabling man to know Being as it is in itself. It is incumbent upon man to do this by the exercise of his intellect, so that he may ennoble his soul and make it perfect, and may become a rational scientist, and get the capacity of eternal bliss in hereafter."
* It is not necessarily concerned with religious issues.
They have the following:
HADITH(the traditional sayings of the Prophet)
SUNNA(the practices of their community)
FIQH(Islamic law, which discusses particular problems concerning how Muslims ought to behave)
* It is not exclusively produced by Muslims.
* Philosophy helps the Muslim to understand the truth using different techniques from those directly provided through Islam
* It is the continuous search for Hikma(Wisdom)
Nature and Origin
* Philosophy in its fullest sense began in the third century of hijra(The hijra was in 622 ad; it is the first year according to the Muslim calendar)
* The main sources of early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam and Greek philosophy. Greek philosophy because most their works on philosophy like logic, medicine...
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture.
What is Islam?
* The name of the religion is Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word meaning "peace" and "submission.“
* Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one's life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed.
* The same Arabic root word gives us "Salaam alaykum," ("Peace be with you"), the universal Muslim greeting.
* The Moslem faith flourished in the countries of Southern Asia and North Africa.
* Other important communities include Zanzibar, Madagascar and China.
* In the 20th century mobility, Islam was brought throughout the world as far as Sydney and South shields.
* The spread of Islam has been frequently associated with military conquest, racial movements and in some cases with the consequent displacement of established populations.
* The most important were the Arab expansion northwards and westwards out of the Arabian peninsula, and the drive of the Turkish and Mongol groups South, Southeast and Southwest of Central Asia.
The islamic world
* The countries into which Islam first expanded were already rich in building tradition and the important techniques of exploitation...
As years have passed, Islam has become a major political force in the contemporary world, arguably through means of terrorism and guerilla warfare. The word Islam actually means, “submission” to the will of Allah, “God” which is similar to how terrorists tend to try and submit others by force to follow said will. These terrorists’ objective is to spread Islamic faith and politics by ridding the world of non-believers to ultimately achieve a pure Islamic state worldwide. There are many reasons why they, the terrorists, believe it to be necessary to pursue such radical goals but the one that sticks out the most is the ultimate goal of getting rid of the Nation of Satan or rather the United States of America. Democracy, to them, is a tool of the Devil because the Qur’an states that only Allah can rule mankind, and man should follow accordingly.
History is full of tales of religious radicals using something that should otherwise be seen as beautiful and turning it into a catalyst for revolution so they can make the change they wish upon the world. Hitler did it but his ultimate goal was for his followers to see him as a divine leader and no other was higher than him and of course you can look back to the leader of ancient Persia, Xerxses the Great, and see another time when a leader thought himself to be divine and ruled by fear. Well, in the case of radical Islam there is no defined leader...
...PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
TAHIRA ARIF PABANEY
In the partial fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Philosophy (M. Phil.) Education/Social Sciences
Under the supervision of
Hamdard Institute of Education and Social Sciences
Submitted on: 26th February, 2013
ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
Q. According to Imam Ghazali’s philosophy of education, what are the categories of knowledge?
A. According to Ghazali’s philosophy, there are four categories of knowledge, namely:
* Prophetic, where prophets convey the message of God without discriminating between the masses and aid in the purification of the soul.
* Rulers, who use their authority, legislation and rules to train and guide the society.
* Philosophers/scholars whose knowledge, though benefitting only a few select individuals, is concerned with benefitting the whole society.
* Preachers who are meant to fulfill the religious requirements of the society and to train the inner and outer self. Their job is to promote knowledge, improve the lives of people and aid them in acquiring desirable ethics through education.
Q. In what ways has Imam Ghazali categorized knowledge?
A. Ghazali divided knowledge into two parts:
* Religious knowledge which is acquired from the Quran and Sunnah and is without a doubt the most dignified and truest of knowledge.
...Medell’s Islamic Ancient Traditions: The Six Pillars
Islamic Ancient Traditions: The Six Pillars
Writings of Crystal Medell
Humanities Ms. Melissa Jayne Shelton
University of Central Oklahoma
The purpose of this paper is to describe ancient Islamic traditions. This paper focuses on the religious traditions that are mainly still practiced today according to the Qur’an. The six pillars are described which consist of Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj, and Jihad.
Islamic Ancient Traditions: The Six Pillars
Writings of Crystal Medell
The religious Islamic traditions of ancient times are still practiced in there entirety except for the sixth pillar which is known as Jihad or the holy war. Islam is the Arabic word for submission to God and the people who practice this religion refer to themselves as Muslims which means one who has submitted to God. The religious beliefs of Islam are from a book written around 610 AD called the Qur’an. Islam was accepted shortly after, sometime around 630 AD. The true meaning of the Qur’an is believed to only be properly accepted in the Arabic language. The Qur’an’s religious traditions come from the six pillars (obligations) of the book. The six pillars are called Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj, and Jihad. Only five are practiced in modern day. (Ahmad, 1995-2011)
We will begin with the first pillar,...
...Islamic Revivalism Movement Towards The Establishment Of Islamic Banking And Finance In Malaysia
Islamic revivalism refers to a revival of the Islamic religion throughout the Islamic world, that began roughly sometime in 1970s and is manifested in greater religious piety, and community feeling, and in a growing adoption of Islamic culture, dress, terminology, separation of the sexes, and values by Muslims. It has been defined by some of the Muslim scholar as the cleansing in an effort to return Islam to its original pure form. One striking example of it is the increase in attendance at the Hajj, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, which grew from 90,000 in 1926 to 2 million in 1979 (Kepel, Gilles, Jihad: on the Trail of Political Islam, Harvard University Press, 2002)
The emergence of the Islamic revivalist movements in Malaysia in 1970 was spawned by the global Islamic resurgence and internal fissures or cracks in the Malay Muslim community. There has been an intensification of Islamic activities since the 1970s which include the establishment of Islamic banking and finance.
The process of Islamization in Malaysia started in line with the concept of Islam as Ad-deen, a way of life in this world and the Hereafter, every ibadah commanded by Allah S.W.T. is of benefit in this and the next world. Since the beginning Muslims are...
...Fundamental of Islamic Ornament in Geometrical Art
Islamic ornament is underlying the pictorial or an icon. It's inspirational is from nature like stars, moon,
trees and etc. Islam stricly does not allow arts in form of living things such as human and animal. In
order to inhibit worshipping idol other than worshipping Allah subahanahuwataala. Basically the art of
Islam can define as merge of science and mathematics learnings. In this content we will be more focing
on geometry form and how an arc growth.
Keywords: pictorial, icon, form, geometric,and arc.
Islamic Ornament can be categorized in 3 different ways. There are geometric patterns, stylized
forms and the arabesques. Based on Anness Publishing (2010) Islamic artist created images
that were erither stylized or abstract, geometric, visibily unreal. (Anness Publishing, 2010).
Islamic Ornament more focusing on the nature art. It creates visibly unreal objects that came from
analyzing texture of God creation which is Allah s.w.t. This is prove from hadith Sahih AlBukhari.
Narrated Said bin Abu Al-Hasan: While I was with Ibn 'Abbas a man came and said, "O father
of 'Abbas! My sustenance is from my manual profession and I make these
'Abbas said, "I will tell you only what I heard from Allah's Apostle . I heard
'Whoever makes a picture will be punished by Allah till he puts life...
Takaful is a co-operative system of reimbursement in case of loss, paid to people and companies concerned about hazards, compensated out of a fund to which they agree to donate small regular contributions managed on behalf by a Takaful Operator. It is defined as an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (Islamic banking), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. This concept has been practised in various forms since 622 CE. Muslim jurists acknowledge that the basis of shared responsibility (in the system of aquila as practised between Muslims of Mecca and Medina) laid the foundation of mutual insurance.
These fundamentals are based on the sayings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Based on the hadith and Qur'anic verses mentioned below, Islamic scholars have decided that there should be a concerted effort to implement the concept of takaful as the best way to resolve these needs. Some examples are:
Basis of Co-operation: Help one another in al-Birr and in al-Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety), but do not help one another in sin and transgression. (Surah Al-Maidah, Verse 2)[Quran 5:2]
God will always help his servant for as long as he helps others.
Basis of Responsibility: The place of relationships and feelings of people with faith, between each other, is just like the body; when one of its parts is...