This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking began, which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers. Mark schemes should be read in conjunction with the question paper and the Principal Examiner Report for Teachers.
Cambridge will not enter into discussions about these mark schemes.
Cambridge is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2012 series for most IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level components and some Ordinary Level components.
GCE O LEVEL – October/November 2012
LEVELS OF RESPONSE
The statements which follow should be used to determine the appropriate level of response for each objective. They should be applied as appropriate to the question and as the assessment of the work of an average 16 year old.
The guiding principle for Examiners in applying the Mark Scheme to answers is to remember the concept of Positive Awarding. Therefore, marks should be awarded for appropriate responses to reasonable interpretations of the question.
In the Mark Scheme there are no instances where answers are specifically excluded or required. What is included is information for Examiners, provided as guidance for what one might reasonably expect to find on a script. All appropriate answers therefore have the potential to be credited. It is perfectly possible for a candidate to achieve the highest level of response using a different argument or different information from that which appears in the Mark Scheme.
AO1 (Knowledge – part (a) questions)
Question 1(a) has a maximum mark of 4 and questions 2–5 have a maximum mark of 10. Level
Very Good/Excellent. A thorough, well-developed and
substantial response. Demonstrates extensive, relevant and
highly accurate knowledge of the subject in considerable
detail and with evident expertise. Likely to quote Qur’an
verses and Hadiths to support and illustrate points made.
Comprehensive and thoughtful.
Good. Addresses the question confidently and coherently.
Demonstrates sound, detailed and generally relevant and
accurate knowledge of the subject matter in great detail.
Covers the main points. May quote Qur’an verses and
Hadiths to support points made.
Satisfactory. A fair, mainly relevant but generally
undeveloped response. The candidate demonstrates some
factual knowledge, which is fairly accurate and slightly wider than at basic level. Some of the main points are covered but lack substance.
Basic. An attempt to answer the question, but lacks
potential and/or is unfinished. Very limited knowledge of the subject. Response includes only a small amount of relevant
material, or mainly irrelevant points. Facts are reported in basic outline only, often inaccurately, though some credible points are made.
Irrelevant. No apparent attempt to answer the question set,
or a wholly irrelevant response. Totally illegible.
AO2 (Understanding – part (b) questions)
Very Good/Excellent. Demonstrates a wide and thorough understanding of what the question asks. Recognises fully and can explain the significance of material used in answer. Can reason, evaluate...
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...aid in the progression of specific biochemical reactions without undergoing any permanent chemical changes themselves. They are complex, conjugated proteins necessary and required to sustain life. Today, enzymes are also used world-wide in a variety of different industrial applications such as the production of paper, wine fermentation, and bio-remediation.
One of the most important industrial applications enzymes are used in worldwide is the production ofpaper. Paper is one of the most important, used and recycled material used worldwide. It is used in many different applications such as crafts, art, printing, etc. Since man first appeared on earth, they sought ways to record their thoughts in some permanent form. They went through stone and bones to brass and copper. Today, humans use paper for a variety of reasons. Without paper, books wouldn’t exist; history wouldn’t have been recorded, and the movement of art and literature wouldn’t have been able to develop at all.
The use of enzymes in the production of paper wasn’t discovered until recently. And since then, the use of enzymes in the pulp and paper industry has grown since 1980.
The process of paper production occurs in five important steps: (1) the creation of pulp, (2) deinking, (3) bleaching, (4) pitch control, and (5) coating.
The raw material, wood, is first acquired from trees. Wood...
...REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In a study, “Papers and Boards from Banana Stem Waste” in which they used banana stem waste in producing paper and board because banana is a very good source of cellulose. Banana stem waste, thrown away by farmers after harvesting of fruits, was procured as raw material. It was chopped by 3-4” size usually at a rate of about 100 kg material per day. The material was soaked in 1-2% NaOH for appropriate period. The alkali loosens the ligno-cellulosic bonds, thereby softening the material. Then it was washed with water. The washed material was then subjected to beating in a Hollander beater, a machine developed by the Dutch in 1680 to produce paper pulp from cellulose containing plant fibers. A period of three to four hours of beating was required for getting a good quality of pulp. It was observed that depending upon the quality of boards to be produced, appropriate amount of fillers, loading material or chemicals were used during wet beating. For production of hard boards, suitable quantity of resins like urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde are added in the beater itself while maintaining pH. The wet boards are then allowed to dry under direct sun on bamboo frames specially made for this purpose.
Handmade paper from rice straw was a product developed by the Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI), a line agency of the DOST. In 1986, the technology was...
...A. Background of the Study
Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. The word "paper" is etymologically derived from Latin papyrus, which comes from the Greek πάπυρος (papuros), the word for the Cyperus papyrus plant.
It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. In papermaking a dilute suspension of fibrous materials in water is drained through a screen, so that a mat of randomly interwoven fibers is laid down. Water is removed from this mat of fibers by pressing and drying to make paper.
The production and use of paper has a number of adverse effects on the environment. The researchers of the study conceptualized a method to make recycled papers using alternative fibrous materials like leaves and flowers that are vastly available in the locality without causing any harm to the environment thus limiting the cutting of trees.
Bougainvillea is sometimes referred to as "paper flower" because their bracts are thin and papery. Its leaves and flowers are fibrous and have an immense potential for making paper.
Bougainvillea is a genus of flowering plants native to South America. The first species recorded in the Philippines was Bougainvillea spectabilis. The other species, B. glabra and B. peruviana were introduced...
...Europe from China. The invention of paper was made by T'sai Lun involved macerating the fibers of plants until each fiber strand was separated, then placing the proper quantity/ density of fiber mass into a large vat of water. The fiber mixture was thoroughly mixed, resulting in the fibers crisscrossing each other, after which a screen was dipped into the vat and lifted gently, leaving a super-thin "mat" of intertwined fibers. When dried, the result was a thin, strong,paper sheet not unlike the product we know of as paper today. In Chinese, gunpowder is called huo Yao, meaning flaming medicine. Unlike paper and printing, the birth of gunpowder was quite accidental. It was first invented inadvertently by alchemists while attempting to make an elixir of immorality. It was a mixture of sulphur, saltpeter, and charcoal. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, gunpowder was being used in military affairs. During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, frequent wars spurred the development of cannons, and fire-arrows shot from bamboo tubes. The typography is one of the most important four inventions in ancient China. The printing skill is named the typography. Though this printing method is primitive and simple, the same as modern typesetting and printing principle, the invention of typography makes the printing technology enter a new era. The invention of moveable type of Printing, or the process of reproducing text and images to a printing...
Paper is the major contributor of solid waste by either weight or volume. Yet it is highly recyclable and can be manufactured into some other materials. Thus, paper charcoal was introduced as an alternative for charcoal. Also, it will not destroy our forests and ravage mother earth but instead, this will help minimize solid waste and reduce forest denudation due to charcoal making (The Central Echo, 2011).
Paper charcoals are made by soaking papers overnight and forming it into fist size balls which are left to dry in the sun. Paper charcoal serves as a good alternative fuel for cooking. Encouraging the use of paper charcoal as an alternative for fuel is a good practice. Waste papers that would otherwise end up in landfills are given new use as cooking medium. This will also help reduce dependence on forest wood for cooking. Since this is made out of used paper materials, this is inexpensive and can be done by every household anytime. It does not produce soot like ordinary charcoals. A few pieces of these paper charcoals can be used for cooking and is very ideal to use during the rainy season (OISCA, 2012).
Aside from its environmental benefits, it will also help families with their budget since paper charcoal can easily be made and the materials to be used are widely available. Paper charcoal may function...
...Paper is taken from the bin and deposited in a large recycling container along with paper from other recycling bins.
The paper is taken to a recycling plant where it is separated into types and grades.
The paper is then washed with soapy water to remove inks, plastic films, staples, and glue.The paper is out into a large holder where it is mixed with water to create a “slurry”.
By adding different maerials to the slurr, differen paper producs can be created, such as cardboard, newsprints or office paper.
The slurry is spread using large rollers into make large thin sheets.
The paper is left to dry, and then it is rolled up ready to be cut and sent back to the shops.
Recycling requires clean recovered paper, so you must keep your paper free from
contaminants, such as food, plastic, metal, and other trash, which make paper difficult to recycle.
Contaminated paper which cannot be recycled must be composted, burned for energy, or land filled.
Recycling centers usually ask that you sort your paper by grade, or type of paper. Your local recycling center can tell you how to sort paper for recycling in your community.
You may take your sorted paper to a local recycling center or recycling bin. Often, a...