Islam and Science
The 6th century Islamic empire inherited the scientific tradition of late antiquity. They preserved it, elaborated it, and finally, passed it to Europe (Science: The Islamic Legacy 3). At this early date, the Islamic dynasty of the Umayyads showed a great interest in science. The Dark Ages for Europeans were centuries of philosophical and scientific discovery and development for Muslim scholars. The Arabs at the time assimilated the ancient wisdom of Persia and the classical heritage of Greece, as well as adapting their own ways of thinking (Hitti 363). The Islamic ability to reconcile monotheism and science prooves to be a first time in human thought that theology, philosophy, and science were coordinated in a unified whole. Thus, their contribution was "one of the first magnitude, considering its effect upon scientific and philosophic thought and upon the theology of later times" (Hitti 580). One of the reasons for such development of science is probably due to God's commandment to explore the laws of nature. The idea is to admire all creations for its complexity and to cherish the creator for His ingenuity. Possibly holding to this belief, Islam's contributions to science had covered many roots of thought including mathematics, astronomy, medicine and philosophy. A common misconception today is that religion and science cannot coincide because they contradict each other. In the case of Islam, however, this statement has been disproven by verses in the Qur'an, hadeeth (prophetic tradition), and scientific discoveries by prominent Muslim philosophers. On the contrary, one of the traditions left by Prophet Muhammad teaches Muslims "to seek knowledge, though it be in China," or not at arm's length (Science in the Golden Age 8). Muslims are encouraged to use intelligence and observations to draw conclusions. Islamic civilizations, in fact, were the "inheritors of the scientific tradition of late antiquity. They preserved it, elaborated it, and, finally, passed it on to Europe" (Science: The Islamic Legacy 3). Much of Europe's scientific resurrection can be attributed to the translations of over 400 Arab authors in the subjects of ophthalmology, surgery, pharmaceuticals, child care, and public health (Tschanz 31). The fusion of both Eastern and Western ideas caused Islamic civilizations to thrive in all aspects of life, specifically science and technology.
There are many instances in which the Qur'an accurately portrays scientific details not available at the time of its revelation. One fallacy against the advancement of science through religion is that discrepancies between verses in the ancient manuscripts of the Qur'an and the modern ones could have been edited out, but when compared, both texts are identical. Some argue that Prophet Muhammad is the founder of Islam and is responsible for authoring the Qur'an, but "the compatibility between the statements in the Qur'an and firmly established data of modern science with regard to subjects on which nobody at the time of Muhammadnot even the Prophet himselfcould have had access to the knowledge we posses today" (Bucaille 3-5). Parallels between modern science and verses in the Qur'an exist even in the origins of the universe. Modern cosmology specifies that the universe originated from a hot, high density gas, or more simply put, smoke. Scientists now observe new stars forming from the same smoke. The Qur'an states that "He [God] turned to the heaven when it was smoke " (Qur'an 41:11). The Big Bang Theory is also supported by the Qur'an in that God asks "have not those who disbelieved known that the heavens and the earth were one connected entity, then We separated them?" (Qur'an 21:30). Dr. Alfred Kroner, one of the world's most prominent geologists, expressed that without knowledge of nuclear physics 1400 years ago, one could not figure out that the earth and the heavens had the same origin on his own, especially since...
...What do scientists think about science communication? Is this any different to times that pre-date the Bodmer report?
In 1985 The Royal Society backed a report called The Public Understanding of Science, also known as The Bodmer Report. It introduced the importance of the public view of science and how they come to understand scientific knowledge. It opened a large debate over the role of science communication.Science communication is the process of disseminating scientific knowledge to audiences outside the scientific community. Thanks to the Bodmer report which kick started serious study into the subject, science communication has now become a fully fledged discipline in its own right with universities offering courses to study it and institutions offering training. It highlights issues over how, what, when and who should communicate scientific knowledge. This essay will look at how scientists themselves think of science communication by looking at studies that have targeted scientists with the topic of communication.
The Role of Scientists in Public Debate was commissioned by the Welcome Trust and conducted by MORI in December 1999 till March 2000. The author specifically wanted to assess the role of scientists in communicating to the public because research into this field mostly focused on public attitudes. The author describes that scientists have...
...THE QUR’AN AND MODERN SCIENCE
by Dr. Maurice Bucaille
Edited by Dr. A. A. B. Philips
Table of Contents
THE QUR’AN AND MODERN SCIENCE Table of Contents EDITOR’S FOREWORD INTRODUCTION RELIGION AND SCIENCE The Qur’an And Science AUTHENTICITY OF QUR’AN CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE ASTRONOMY The Sun and Moon. Stars and Planets Orbits
The Day and Night The Solar Apex Expansion of the Universe Conquest of Space GEOLOGY Water Cycle Mountains BIOLOGY Botany Physiology EMBRYOLOGY Fertilization Implantation Embryo BIBLE, QUR’AN AND SCIENCE Creation Age of the Earth The Flood The Pharaoh
This booklet by Dr. Maurice Bucaille has been in circulation for the past nineteen years and has been a very effective tool in presenting Islam to non-Muslims as
well as introducing Muslims to aspects of the scientific miracle of the Qur’an. It is based on a transcription of a lecture given by Dr. Bucaille in French. In this reprint, I decided to improve its presentation by simplifying the language and editing the text from an oral format to a pamphlet format. There were also passing references made by the author to material in his book, The Bible, the Qur’an and Science, which needed explanation. I took the liberty of including explanatory portions from his book where more detail was necessary. A few footnotes were also added for clarity and a hadeeth which the author...
...Though science is often considered a field for those who want concrete answers and find speculation something beneath them, John M. Barry reveals quite the opposite. Through this passage, Barry shows his reader through numerous rhetorical strategies that scientific research is actually a field for the daring and courageous willing to be left unsure of most answers and rely on faith that someday their work will yield something of importance on the subject.
Barry’s initial juxtaposition of “certainty” and “uncertainty” allows the reader to empathize with and begin to respect those who are uncertain. His antithesis concerning what scientists possess courage for highlights his point that he leaves inexplicably clear in his allusion to Claude Bernard who said “Science teaches us to doubt.” A second allusion to Albert Einstein reinforces his assertion that often scientist do not want to believe in what they uncover and are courageous when they do so anyway. The third paragraph effectively characterizes scientist ideologically as individuals who are courageous because of their resilience despite uncertainty.
The beginning of the conceit regarding scientists in the wilderness emphasizes that the environment they work in is dangerous and unchartered. The step off of the metaphorical cliff can end in failure for the scientist and dramatically provides imagery of a scientist’s job. The parasprodokian employed at the beginning of the fourth paragraph...
Is it necessary for everyone to learn science?
What is science? “Science is the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.” Science can be known as a subject, explanation and possibly our underlying belief. Among the humanity, there are diverse of religions; some believe in Buddhism, some believe in Christian, some believe in Science, because science is proved with mathematical methods and repetitive experiments, unlike stories are told in the bible. I think learning science is necessary, and it is also important enough to make humankind to feel secure, change the way they think, and allow them to reach out more.
First, science is important because it allows us to understand our universe and our role in it. Some of the greatest minds in world history had advocated for the practice of science. After reading the Republic by Plato, I understand how crucial learning knowledge, science, is. Plato employs prisoners as a metaphor for human being. The prisoners lived in an underground cave, while they had their necks and legs all tied up, fixed in the same spot, and they only see things that are in front of them. “Underground cave”, “all tied up” such phrases symbolizes how human beings live in their small world,...
...Ars Disputandi Volume 6 (2006) : 1566–5399
Roxanne D. Marcotte
Islam and Science
By Muzaﬀar Iqbal
(Ashgate Science and Religion Series), Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2002; xxii + 372 pp.; hb. £ 52.50, pb. £ 22.50; : 0–7546–0799–2/0–7546–0800–x.
Islam and Science presents an articulate and concise historical introduction to intellectual developments that have shaped Islamic civilization, both religious and scientiﬁc. The work attempts to ‘construct a coherent account of the larger religious and cultural background’ in which the Islamic scientiﬁc tradition came into existence and to explore the ‘vexingly complex’ issue of its decline. The main thesis is that scientiﬁc traditions ‘arose from the bosom of a tradition of learning that had been grounded in the very heart of the primary sources of Islam: the Qur’an and Hadith.’ The latter are reports of the deeds and statements of the Prophet that became the sunna, or tradition of the Prophet. Before addressing diﬃculties that such a thesis raises, let us ﬁrst provide an overview of the structure of the 11 chapters.  The ﬁrst chapter covers the emergence of an Islamic scientiﬁc tradition during the ﬁrst two centuries of Islamic civilization: both the emergence of new religious sciences, with the study of Qur’an and hadiths, and the presence of scientiﬁc traditions (atomism of the...
...The word "science" probably brings to mind many different pictures: a fat textbook, white lab coats and microscopes, an astronomer peering through a telescope, a naturalist in the rainforest, Einstein's equations scribbled on a chalkboard, the launch of the space shuttle, bubbling beakers …. All of those images reflect some aspect of science, but none of them provides a full picture because science has so many facets
Science is both a body of knowledge and a process. In school, science may sometimes seem like a collection of isolated and static facts listed in a textbook, but that's only a small part of the story. Just as importantly, science is also a process of discovery that allows us to link isolated facts into coherent and comprehensive understandings of the natural world.
Science is exciting. Science is a way of discovering what's in the universe and how those things work today, how they worked in the past, and how they are likely to work in the future. Scientists are motivated by the thrill of seeing or figuring out something that no one has before.
Science is useful. The knowledge generated by science is powerful and reliable. It can be used to develop new technologies, treat diseases, and deal with many other sorts of problems.
Science is ongoing. Science is continually refining and...
• What causes the Renaissance to begin and how does Humanism influence the
development of the Renaissance?
• How does art evolve during the time of the Renaissance?
• Who are some of the most influential artists and thinkers of the Renaissance?
• How does the printing press influence the development of the Renaissance?
• Who are some of the most influential artists and thinkers of the Renaissance?
• How did the politics, economics, geographic and social implications affect cultural expansion during this period?
• How were the lives of people living during the Renaissance similar to our lives today? How were their lives different?
• How did Renaissance bring about change in the thinking of people, science, arts, and education of that time?
• How did Renaissance changed Europe and the world?
• Do Renaissance ideas still affect us today?
Make sure you structure your essay properly so that it follows the below mentioned format.
Introduction: You respond to the key words and phrases, define terms, set the parameters of your essay and introduce your stand. Make sure you address the (four C’S) context, clarifications, controversies and contention.
Body: This must be organizes into paragraphs in a logical sequence. You must present relevant detailed factual information and constantly link it back to the original question .Discussion and analysis are an essential part of any essay.
Footnotes and citations: All...
Science (Latin, scientia, from scire, “to know”), term used in its broadest sense to denote systematized knowledge in any field, but usually applied to the organization of objectively verifiable sense experience. The pursuit of knowledge in this context is known as pure science, to distinguish it from applied science, which is the search for practical uses of scientific knowledge, and from technology, through which applications are realized. For additional information, see separate articles on most of the sciences mentioned.
II ORIGINS OF SCIENCE
Efforts to systematize knowledge can be traced back to prehistoric times, through the designs that Palaeolithic people painted on the walls of caves, through numerical records that were carved in bone or stone, and through artefacts surviving from Neolithic civilizations. The oldest written records of protoscientific investigations come from Mesopotamian cultures; lists of astronomical observations, chemical substances, and disease symptoms, as well as a variety of mathematical tables, were inscribed in cuneiform characters on clay tablets. Other tablets dating from about 2000 bc show that the Babylonians had knowledge of Pythagoras' Theorem, solved quadratic equations, and developed a sexagesimal system of measurement (based on the number 60) from which modern time and angle units stem. (see Number Systems; Numerals.)