The term "Islamophobia" was first used in print in 1991 and was defined in the Runnymede Trust Report as "unfounded hostility towards Islam, and therefore fear or dislike of all or most Muslims." The word has been coined because there is a new reality which needs naming — anti-Muslim prejudice has grown so considerably and so rapidly in recent years that a new item in the vocabulary is needed so that it can be identified and acted against. (Sajid 2005) The term "Islamophobia" was coined by way of analogy to "xenophobia", which is a dislike or fear of people from other countries or of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange. Some definitions suggest xenophobia as arising from irrationality or unreason; this can also be said for islamophobia. Islamophobia can be characterized by the belief that all or most Muslims are religious fanatics, have violent tendencies towards non- Muslims, and reject concepts such as equality, tolerance, and democracy. It is a new form of racism where Muslims, an ethno-religious group, are constructed as a race. A set of negative assumptions are made of the entire group to the detriment of members of that group. During the 1990s many sociologists and cultural analysts observed a shift in racist ideas from ones based on skin color to ones based on notions of cultural superiority and otherness. (Sajid 2005) In Britain and other European or Western countries, Manifestations of anti-muslim hostility has been exemplified in many verbal as well as physical attacks on Muslims in public places and attacks on mosques and desecration of Muslim cemeteries. Before 9/11, in Western countries negative stereotypes and remarks in speeches by political leaders, implying that Muslims are less committed than others to democracy and the rule of law. There was a rise in the number of hate crimes against Muslims in London in 2010, these hate crimes were being encouraged by mainstream politicians and sections of the media, a study written by a former Scotland Yard counter-terrorism officer, published January 26, 2010, says that attacks ranging from death threats and murder to persistent low-level assaults, such as spitting and name-calling, are in part whipped up by extremists and sections of mainstream society. Lambert headed Scotland Yard's Muslim contact unit, which helped improve relations between the police and Britain's Islamic communities. The study mentions no newspapers or writers by name, but alleges that the book Londonistan, by the Mail writer Melanie Phillips, played a part in triggering hate crimes. Londonistan is a book about the spread of Islamism in the United Kingdom over the past twenty years. When London was hit by suicide bombers in July 2005, the dirty little secret was finally out. Great Britain had been the European hub of Islamist extremism for more than a decade. Under the noses of British intelligence, a network of terrorists and their sympathizers had used Britain to plot, finance, recruit and train for atrocities in the United States and around the world. The scale of this activity was so large that exasperated European security agencies dubbed Britain's capital city Londonistan. (Phillips 2006). In Europe and in America as well, it can be seen in widespread and routine negative stereotyping in the media and everyday discourse in ways that would not be acceptable if the reference were, for example, to Jewish or black people. (Dodd 2010) Islamophobia is heightened by a number of contextual factors. One of these is the fact that a high proportion of refugees are Muslims. Demonization of refugees is therefore frequently a coded attack on Muslims, for the words "Muslim," "asylum-seeker," "refugee," and "immigrant" become synonymous in the popular imagination. In this case, the common experiences of immigrant communities with unemployment, rejection, alienation and violence have combined with Islamophobia to make integration really difficult. This has led Muslim communities to suffer...
...common use) used generally to refer to prejudice against, hatred towards, irrational fear of, or racism towards Muslims’ (Wikipedia). Just by making a judgement on the above definition, it is unacceptable to be prejudice, have hatred or fear towards, or be racist towards any person based on their religion. As a human being, every Muslim has a right to practice their religion freely, as would a Christian, Hindu or Jew etc. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that: ‘Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.’ This then, would explain why Islamophobia goes against Human Rights. It is shallow for an individual to pass judgment on an entire group of people based solely on the actions of a few. The fact is, no religion permits any acts of violence or terrorism, and those who commit such crimes, should not be associated with any religion at all.
Events such as the 9/11 attack, as well as the most recent attack at the Westgate Mall in Kenya, have resulted in an increased focus, suspicion and awareness of Muslims throughout the world. This topic hits home not only because I am a proud and practicing Muslim, but also because I am a future educator who will...
...Islam: A Balancing Act
Islam is a very large religion, accounting for one-fifth of the world’s population. In any large religious community, there are many different variations and sects and this is true of Islam. But unlike what is usually common, there is also an underlying unity that flows through the entire Muslim community. Muslims show this on a personal, one-on-one level, but also even at the global level, when Muslim countries help other Muslim countries. And as a whole, the tradition of Islam balances its large diversity through the concept of the tawhid and the Five Pillars.
Islam, since it is a missionary religion, has changed and adapted everywhere it has gone, creating many diverse variations around the world. Islam began in Saudi Arabia, but over the centuries it has migrated around the world to Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Each geographical area has its own unique way of practicing Islam. In places like Iran and Nigeria, Shariah law is followed. This is the exact law as it is written in the Quran and mainly emphasizes the “eye for an eye” and “ear for an ear” principle. Although punishments aren’t always enforced, they give people great incentive not to commit crimes, thereby lowering the chaos in the country (Muslims). On the other side of the spectrum, in places...
Islam: The Challenge of Being Muslim
The media is inundated with reports about Muslims, but do not accurately represent the Islamic Faith. Humayun Ansari (2003) stated, “Unless the root causes of Islamophobia are addressed, the deep divisions in our society will remain” (p. 8). How do we overcome this fear if the news reports Muslims protesting in violence against others unlike themselves in response to an anti-Islamic film posted on YouTube? Islam even though it is one of the three Abrahamic religions seems to set itself apart. Huntington (2003) predicts that Islam will overtake Christianity by 5% having more adherents than Christianity will (p. 66). In accordance with the previous statistics population alone should fundamentally accept Islam.
The Rise of Islam
The land of Arabia and its inhabitants have been nomadic out of necessity, living on the produce of their camels and sheep. The majority of the ancient Arabs were, therefore, pastoralists who were constantly on the move in search of grass and water for their herds and flocks. Judging by the evidence furnished by the pre‑Islamic poets, polemical passages in the Qur'an and the later Islamic literature, idolatry based on polytheism prevailed throughout ancient Arabia. The deities of heathen Arabia were represented by idols, sacred stones, and other objects of worship. At the period...
...Hijab and Islam
There are so many topics in Islam that fascinate me but the one that always inquires my desire to learn more is the topic of women and Hijab. There are many views with regard to Hijab in Islam from the Muslims themselves. The issue of Hijab can be analyzed from several perspectives. Firstly, the Islamic view on Hijab, the importance and benefits to society at large and the world view of Hijab and the women wearing Hijab living in the Western hemisphere.
However, some Muslim women believe that the wearing of the Hijab is the right and the choice of the Muslim woman. They are not forced or pressured to wear a veil and they are not forced to cover their hair when they are around men that are not their Mahrrams (men that they are able to marry). Muslim women believe that Allah has ordered all females after the age of puberty to wear the Hijab and that it is an obligation from the Lord. As any other obligation in Islam such as praying five times a day, fasting in the month of Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca, wearing the Hijab also is compulsory on all women. There are no excuses or allowances for certain women to wear or not to wear. The issue of choice is not entertained by these Muslim feminists.
Sometimes what happens is that when a woman decides to wear the Hijab, there are members in the family that disagree. The main reason for...
...Impact of Islam and Muslims in India
Expansion of trade
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Islam's impact was the most notable in the expansion of trade. The first contact of Muslims with India, was the Arab attack on a nest of pirates near modern-day Bombay, to safeguard their trade in the Arabian Sea. Around the same time many Arabs settled at Indian ports, giving rise to small Muslim communities. the growth of these communities was not only due to conversion, but also the fact that many Hindu kings of south India (such as those from Cholas) hired Muslims as mercenaries.
A significant aspect of the Muslim period in world history was the emergence of Islamic Sharia courts capable of imposing a common commercial and legal system that extended from Morocco in the West to Mongolia in the North East and Indonesia in the South East. While southern India was already in trade with Arabs/Muslims, northern India found new opportunities. As the Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms of Asia were subjugated by Islam, and as Islam spread through Africa - it became a highly centralizing force that facilitated in the creation of a common legal system that allowed letters of credit issued in say Egypt or Tunisia to be honoured in India or Indonesia (The Sharia has laws on the transaction of Business with both Muslims and Kaffirs). In order to cement...
...India Policy Foundation
Urdu Media is a Victim of Reactionism- Prof. Rakesh Sinha I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. Urdu media’s tirade against Rushdie Fatwa against Christian priests for conversion Thirty thousand Britons under the refuge of Islam Islamic missionary expelled from Sri Lanka Construction of Kadiyani Mosque stopped Women without Burqua not allowed in Saudi Arab Rs 54 lakh to Muslim men arrested in Mecca Mosque blast case Fatwa against Surya Namaskar Demand for Muslim Reservation No one can get power in Uttar Pradesh without Muslims Coup attempted in Bangladesh Jamaite Islami targeted in Bangladesh Inciting communal violence Corruption charges against the son of the top leader in Iran What if you are a Muslim? New office bearers of Muslim Mazlis Mishrawat
XVII. Opening of Israel consulate in Bangaluru was opposed XVIII. Permanent accommodation for hajis in Mecca XIX. XX. XXI. Are Muslims just a vote-bank? Shiela Dikshit: Enemy of Muslims Differences in Muslim League
XXII. Muslim Unity is a Must XXIII. Islamic Law XXIV. Islamic Parties will Form the Government in Egypt XXV. Israel is worried about success of followers of Islam XXVI. Rahul Gandhi meets Urdu Editors
India Policy Foundation
References of Urdu Newspapers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9....
...The word Islam means “submission”, in the religion itself it is the total surrender to God. Islam and Muslim are of the same religion, practicing the same and worshipping the same. At times many think that they are different religions. The word Muslim means “ one who submits to God”. There is 1.1 to 1.8 Billion Muslims, making this religion the second largest religion in the world after Christianity. (Wikipedia, 2007) The Islam religion has originated from the teachings of Muhammad who is a 7th century Arab religions and political figure. Muslims believe that God came to Muhammad as his final prophet, and revealed the words and deeds of the Qur’an (God’s revelation) and the Sunnah. In this essay the way of the Islam religion will be explained, the journey of this religion is expressed in everyday life. Not only have many people followed this religion; there are also many new converted followers that submit themselves to this religion.
Women of the Islam religion have fought with the misconception that they are slaves of the religion. It has been said that they are not treated equally and cruelly; this of course is stereotypical. The Qur’an states that a marriage is the sharing of two halves of society. The objective of this connection between two people is not only to create life but to also to create spiritual harmony. According to the Islamic...
In the movie "Contact," astronomer Ellie Arroway, played by actress Jodie Foster, searches for signs of extraterrestrial life using massive, Earth-bound radio telescopes.
Much of Contact's scientific intrigue, based on Carl Sagan's 1985 bestseller, unfolds at two National Science Foundation-supported radio astronomy facilities where real-life astronomical mysteries continue to be probed. Scientists use the government-supported telescopes to detect radio waves not from distant civilizations but from planets, stars, galaxies and other objects in space. Radio observations extend astronomers' reach into space and time, letting them "see" through gas and dust in space to detect celestial objects whose visible light cannot be seen from Earth.
In "Contact," Foster hears the first guttural, throbbing message transmitted by other-worldly life using the world's most powerful radio telescope, the Very Large Array in Socorro, New Mexico, a collection of 27 antennas spread in a three-armed configuration across the desert. NSF's National Radio Astronomy Observatory runs the huge dishes, which Foster manipulates in the film from her laptop computer like a high-tech, movable Stonehenge, in reality. Electronically linked to simulate a single radio telescope up to 20 miles in diameter, the antennas can be bunched together or moved apart along railroad tracks into different configurations. About 700 astronomers visit the VLA each year to observe the...