The word "foreign policy" means a policy pursued by a nation its dealing with other nations designed to achieve national objectives. So the Islamic foreign policy means a policy pursued by the Islamic nation. In Islam, the concept of foreign policy was introduced by Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.W) during the establishment of Islamic state in Medina. The basis of the Islamic foreign policy consists of taking the message of Islam to every people and every nation. For Allah say "O Messenger! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent to you from your Lord. And if you do not, then you have not conveyed his Message." [Al-Ma'idah, 5:67]. Basic Principles:
Basic principles of Islam’s concept of international relations as laid down by the jurists or in other words the fundamental principles of policy which guide the relations of an Islamic state with other countries are: * Promotion of Peace and Security:
As the very word implies, Islam means ‘peace’ and ‘security’. It also means ‘submission’ to Allah and hence salvation. Islam is thus, a religion of peace and, no wonder the basic principle of the Islamic state in its relations with foreign countries is ‘peace with all and war against none’ or in other words, ‘friendship towards all and malice towards none’. Al-Qur’an, the revealed book of Islam, does not allow an aggressive war; it allows to take up arms only as a last resort in self-defence. The Qur’an enjoins upon its followers: “Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors”. (2:190). History of Islam is witness to the fact that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his companions resorted to fight only when they had been wronged, persecuted and even expelled from their homes by the enemies of Islam. The Qur’an mentions this fact when it says: “Sanction is given unto those who fight because they have been wronged; and Allah is indeed Able to give them victory” (22:39). Although Islam, like any other religion or ideology, wants its propagation with the view to bring to its fold as many adherents as possible, but this is achieved through peaceful preaching and not through aggressive means. Thus, the religion of peace does not allow war for its preaching as well. The Qur’an says: “There is no compulsion in religion”…… (2:256). At another place, it exhorts the Prophet of Islam to say to disbelievers”……Unto you your religion, and unto me my religion”. (109:6) * Promotion of Brotherhood and Fraternity:
Islam believes in the brotherhood of human beings and al-Qur’an emphasises common ancestry of man. There is no denial of the fact that all human beings belong to the common stock as they come of the same parents Adam and Eve. The Qur’an brings into focus this fact of common parentage and hence brotherhood in its following verses: (i) O mankind! Be careful of your duty to your Lord Who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate and from them twain hath spread abroad a multitude of men and women……” –––(4:1) (ii) And He it is Who hath produced you from a single being, and (hath given you) a habitation and a repository…… –––(6:98) Since human beings belong to the same human stock and have common ancestry, all of them are like brothers and sisters. Like children of the same parents, they are equal having equal rights and duties to each other. Thus, Islam promotes universal brotherhood and fraternity not only among the individual human beings but also among the peoples and nations. Hence the second fundamental principle of the foreign policy of the Islamic state is to promote brotherhood and fraternity among the nations of the world. Akin to the principle of brotherhood is the principle of equality as the fact of common parentage of all the human beings leads to establish that human beings are not only brothers of each other but also are equal to each other. The Prophet of...
...REL1006S: COURSE ESSAY
Discuss how Islam is a quest to be faithful to the transcendent, both directly and through social engagement
Islam is a religion based on the belief in one God, His messenger and the four other pillars. These five pillars are central to Muslims, followers of Islam and mould their beings and are part of their everyday lives. This essay will look at the abovementioned pillars, what they are and how they form part of the quest to be faithful to the transcendent. Mention will also be made to how Islam ‘plays out’ in everyday life, thus how this quest is and can be done both directly and through social engagement.
Firstly, we need to establish who or what the Transcendent is. I would like to describe the transcendent, according to Islamic beliefs, as being both Allah (Arabic word for God) and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Allah, of course is the most important aspect of Islam but it is also relevant that great emphasis is placed on the Prophet. Muslims strive to be more like the Prophet, by following his ‘way of life’, the Sunnah and as a result, pleasing and becoming closer to God. The Five Pillars of Islam, based on work by Mark Sedgwick (2006) are important components of Muslim worship. The first of the five pillars is the “…recognition that there is no god other than God, and that Muhammad is the Prophet of God” (Sedgwick: 2006, 70). This may not seem like an ‘act of...
...Islam is a tradition of love and submission to God that ultimately strives for peace. The ancient religion emerged in the seventh century and was able to appeal to the public through its deeply entrenched attitudes to peace. Islam’s constant endeavour for peace can be presented through its ancient traditions and sacred texts, history and historical events and current practices and contemporary events of the religion.
The sacred texts of Islam are the Quran, which contains the revelations from Allah and the Hadith, which outlines the way of the prophet Muhammad. These sacred texts are fundamental to Islam and it is through these texts that Muslims formulate an understanding of peace. This is reflected through the Quranic statement:
“O ye who believe! Come, all of you, into complete peace and follow not the footsteps of evil. Surely he is your open enemy.” (2:208)
Despite the world of violence and belligerence that Muhammad was born into, his approach to the ethics of war and peace differed from the prevailing tribal culture of the time. Muhammad’s attitude with regards to the concept of peace was one of active non-violent resistance and open defiance of persecution by non-believers. The essence of this is represented in the Quranic verse:
“The recompense of evil is punishment like it, but whoever forgives and amends, he shall have his reward from Allah; surely he does not love the unjust.” (Sural al-Shura 42:40-43 ‘The...
...as the country’s foreignpolicy. Foreignpolicy has changed throughout the history of the United States. U.S. has seen many different eras of its policy with foreign nations. Since the birth of Pakistan in 1947, the relationship between the United States and Pakistan has alternated between being extremely close partners to U.S. imposing economic and military sanctions. However, post September 11th, the U.S. foreignpolicy changed quickly with the country of Pakistan to a much friendlier and closer level than ever before to accommodate the needs of this country.
In the United States, the there are many departments who work together on creating foreignpolicies with other nations. The president or commander in chief has the power to negotiate treaties as well as appoint ambassadors to other nations, although this requires consent by the Senate with a two thirds vote (p. 482). The U.S. President’s chief foreignpolicy advisor is the secretary of state, currently, Condoleezza Rice. As mentioned earlier, there are other departments who play a major role in influencing the policy-making process.
September 11, 2001 is a day that will forever be remembered not only in the United States, but the world. Under President Bush’s term, this was the day that the freedom of this nation was...
Coming out of World War I, the United States emerged as the most powerful nation in the world. The president at this time was the Progressive Woodrow Wilson. Wilson came up with a plan for long lasting peace at the conclusion of the war called the Fourteen Points. One of these points was the League of Nations which was Wilson's favorite thing. This part of Wilson's plan stated, "A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike." However, the United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles and never became a member of the League of Nations. Opposition against Wilson's plans came from within the country. Massachusetts Senator and chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Henry Cabot Lodge led the fight against signing the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. The American general public shared this sentiment and the country's foreignpolicy was independent and isolationistic for the next two decades.
Without committing to any lasting foreign relationships, the United States did involve itself with other countries in three regards: war reparations, disarmament and international finance. The Treaty of Versailles hit Germany hard and they had to pay out huge sums of money as reparations. In 1924 American...
...UNIVERSITY OF DODOMA
SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
COURSE: FOREIGNPOLICY AND DIPLOMACY
COURSE CODE: IR
COURSE INSTRUCTOR: MR OMBENI
COURSE NATURE: INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT
NAME | REGISTRATION NO | DEGREE PROGRAMME | SIGNATURE |
UISO MATHIAS. L | T/UDOM/2O12/03924 | BA-IR | |
Foreignpolicy also refers to activity of the state within which it fulfills its aims and interests within the international arena, process and a system of activities performed by a state organized community of people within the international arena. (Ernest p 2013 )
According to Susarla D. (Foreignpolicy consists of strategies chosen by states to safeguard national interests and to achieve its goals in international relations; states interact with other states, nations, as well as non-state actors. Foreignpolicy is an activity of the state within which it fulfills its aims and interests within the international arena
ForeignPolicy refers to a course of action or set of principles adopted by a nation’s government to define its relations with other countries or groups of countries. A country’s foreignpolicy also sets forth its positions on a wide range of international issues. A country’s foreignpolicy may reflect broad national objectives or...
ISLAM 570 C.E. – 1500 C.E.
SUBMISSION TO ALLAH: MUSLIM CIVILIZATION BRIDGES THE WORLD
The thesis of Chapter 11 is clearly stated by Howard Spodek on page 334: “Islam was not only a faith, not only a system of government, not only a social and cultural organization, but a combination of all four.” This, it might be argued, could be said about any of the “world religions” during at least some stage of their development, but is perhaps more true of Islam than the others, owing to the simplicity of its basic teachings, the lack of a true priesthood and the dual religious and political roles assumed by Muslim elites, and the reliance on the Quran – viewed as the literal word of Allah (God) as revealed to the prophet Muhammad – as both the sole source of religious truth and the sole source of law. The chapter begins with a summary of the life of Muhammad and discussion of the early development of Islam, including the origins of the split between its two principal groups, Sunni and Shi’a. It reviews basic tenets of Muhammad’s teachings, the “Five Pillars” of Islam; and the importance of the concept of the umma or community of believers; and shari’a, or Islamic law; and then discusses the ways in which Islam was transmitted throughout Eurasia and Africa and transformed from a regional Arab sect into a world religion and cosmopolitan cultural ecumene. In addition to explaining...
...Five Pillars of Islam
The First Pillar is the believers’ confession of faith, reduced to a few words that every member of the faithful from every continent and background can understand, from the illiterate nomadic herdsman in the deserts of Northern Kenya to the sophisticated trilingual businessman of Paris or Riyadh. The Second Pillar is the central act of righteous in Islam, the very essence of the life of a Muslim. The Third Pillar Islam is a significant presence in one hundred or more countries all around the world, and the majority religion in over forty. There are almost a billion believers. By the year of 2020, if present trends continue, half the world would be Muslim. Islam is an Arabic word meaning submission or commitment to the God. Islam is the humble recognition of the relationship between man and his divine creator and resonates with the familiar words from Judaism and Christianity. The fourth Pillar is the fasting. A Muslim must fast for the month of Ramadan. During the fasting month, one must refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sexual intercourse from dawn until sunset. The fifth and final Pillar is where a Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Every adult Muslim who is physically and financially able to do so must make this pilgrimage at least once in his or her lifetime.
The history of Islam begins with Muhammad and the Quran. The low level of importance...