Chapter 9 STUDY GUIDE- Rise of Islam 600-1200
Using complete sentences, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. What was the division in the Islamic community about and who were the groups involved? 2. In what region was the Sassanid Empire?
3. What holy shrine is located in Mecca? According to stories connected with it, who built the shrine and what happened near the site? 4. Muhammad’s teachings seem to be in agreement with what religions? 5. What was Muhammad’s flight to Medina called?
6. What did the supremacy of the Median state depend on?
7. Who was Muhammad’s successor and what was his title?
8. List the 5 pillars of Islam.
9. What is the Quran?
10. What happened as a result of Husayn’s death?
11. Who are the Ahl al-Sunna wa’l-Jama’s, or Sunni for short? 12. List 5 regions/countries conquered by the Muslim caliphs. 13. What caused the unrest that led to the fall of the Umayyad caliphate? 14. Why was the Abassid period called a “golden age”?
15. Why did the Abassid caliphate decline in power?
16. After failing to reform their government and military, the Abassid Caliphate fell under the influence whom? 17. Who were the ulama?
18. Describe the change in economy, government involvement in religious matters, and population during the reign of the Seljuk Turks. 19. What did the hadith deal with? And what was a problem with the hadith? 20. What did conversion to Islam entail?
21. How did urban growth help the countryside? And what were some of the main crops grown? 22. What helped facilitate long-distance trade and integrate rural areas into the economy? 23. Who influenced Muslim science and technology? And what were 3 major scientific advancements of Ibn al-Haytham? 24. Describe 4 aspects of the life of urban women.
Shi’ites Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in...
UMAYYAD AND ABBASIDCALIPHATES COMPARED
(657-750CE) Umayyad clan starts as a foe to Muhammad. They are defeated at Mecca by Muhammad’s forces but are embraced by Muhammad and become a powerful Muslim clan that will lead the faith after Muhammad.
After the first three caliphs, The followers of Ali will split away from the faith and form the Shiites (who think caliphs should be related to Muhammad) and the Umayyads will lead the remaining vast majority of Muslims (the Sunnis) who believe the caliphs should be chosen from among all Muslims. Umayyads will conquer much of North Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and parts of Western Europe (Spain) very rapidly. They will be halted from taking more of western Europe at the Battle of Tours in France in 732CE.
While the Umayyads will win political victory militarily (by the sword) they will not generally force their conquered people to convert on pain of death. The Umayyad capital will be Damascus and they will govern as ARAB ELITE Muslims looking down upon non-Arab converts known as Mawali and using an ethnic Arab military and ethnic Arab bureaucracy. The caliphs will be resented by the soldiers on the frontier for leading non-Islamic lavish lifestyles. Umayyads will set up a...
...Umayyads tried to convert the Islamic conquests into a secular state. The Umayyad caliphs extended the territories of Islam to the walls of Constantinople, the borders of China, and along the southern coast of the Mediterranean to Spain. The Umayyads attempted to maintain a strictly Arab elite within their state. As the number of non-Arab converts to Islam grew, dissatisfaction with the concept of Arab—especially Quraysh—dominance festered. Demands for greater equality among all Muslims coalesced with reformers’ claims into a broad movement that unseated the Umayyads. Distant relatives of Muhammad, the ‘Abbasids, were recognized as rightful successors. In 750 the ‘Abbasids replaced the Umayyads as rulers everywhere but in Spain. At the outset, the ‘Abbasids represented the reform movement and set out to govern according to strict religious principles. Arabs lost their control of Islamic government which was opened to all Muslims. The ‘Abbasids created a new capital in Baghdad, a recognition of the new importance of Iraq and Persia in the new government. The ‘Abbasids claimed absolute rights of government based on the righteousness of their claims to power. The caliphs created a centralized bureaucracy on the model of the eastern empires. Slave soldiers replaced the originally Arab armies. By the tenth century, the ‘Abbasid caliphs lost absolute control over...
...The AbbasidCaliphate (Arabic: الخلافة العباسية / ALA-LC: al-Khilāfah al-‘Abbāsīyyah), was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad, Iraq after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region.
The Abbasidcaliphate was founded by the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653), in Kufa in 750 CE and shifted its capital in 762 to Baghdad. Within 150 years of gaining control of Persia, the caliphs were forced to cede power to local dynastic emirs who only nominally acknowledged their authority. The caliphate also lost the Western provinces of al-Andalus, Maghreb and Ifriqiya to an Umayyad prince, the Aghlabids and the Fatimid Caliphate, respectively.
The Abbasids' rule was briefly ended for three years in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol khan, sacked Baghdad, resuming in Mamluk Egypt in 1261, from where they continued to claim authority in religious matters until 1519, when power was formally transferred to the Ottoman Empire and the capital relocated to Constantinople.
Main article: Science in the medieval Islamic world
Further information: Alchemy (Islam), Islamic astronomy, Islamic mathematics, Islamic medicine, and Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic...
ISLAM 570 C.E. – 1500 C.E.
SUBMISSION TO ALLAH: MUSLIM CIVILIZATION BRIDGES THE WORLD
The thesis of Chapter 11 is clearly stated by Howard Spodek on page 334: “Islam was not only a faith, not only a system of government, not only a social and cultural organization, but a combination of all four.” This, it might be argued, could be said about any of the “world religions” during at least some stage of their development, but is perhaps more true of Islam than the others, owing to the simplicity of its basic teachings, the lack of a true priesthood and the dual religious and political roles assumed by Muslim elites, and the reliance on the Quran – viewed as the literal word of Allah (God) as revealed to the prophet Muhammad – as both the sole source of religious truth and the sole source of law. The chapter begins with a summary of the life of Muhammad and discussion of the early development of Islam, including the origins of the split between its two principal groups, Sunni and Shi’a. It reviews basic tenets of Muhammad’s teachings, the “Five Pillars” of Islam; and the importance of the concept of the umma or community of believers; and shari’a, or Islamic law; and then discusses the ways in which Islam was transmitted throughout Eurasia and Africa and transformed from a regional Arab sect into a world religion and cosmopolitan cultural ecumene. In addition to explaining...
...• What were the reasons behinds the decline of Abbasidcaliphate?
Harun al-Rashid was the last 'Abbasid caliph to rule a clean-cut empire and after his death, the empire was divided in two. One son, Amin, got the western area and the caliphate, and his other son, Al-Mamun got the eastern area, the army, and the right to succession. Moreover, the 4th Fitna (811-813) was not about religious principles, but it was a civil war between Amin and Al-Mamun; Amin wanted his son to be the next caliph, but Al-Mamun didn't agree because Amin didn't have the right to succession. Al-Mamun entered present-day Baghdad in 819 and fought his brother/brother's empire with the assistance of Tahir, a Khurasani warlord. Once Al-Mamun won, he formed a new empire, give his former empire to Tahir (who in turn ruled the Tahirids, which lasted from 821-873). All of this has lead to a further breaking up of the empire and conflict within the caliphate. Besides, Al-Mamun attempted religious and political authority and he supported rational thought, which put him at odds with the ulama.
• What about the Third Crusade?
When the Mamluk general Imad-ed-din Zangi died, his son Nureddin, who added Damascus to the land his father had gathered, succeeded him and after the death of Nureddin in 1174 AD, a strong Kurdish general named Salah al-din took over. Salah al-din soon conquered Egypt from the Fatimids, and then he was...
...Internet Edition – http://imranhosein.org
Ansari Memorial Series
THE CALIPHATE THE HEJAZ AND THE
Imran N. Hosein
MASJID DARUL QUR’AN, LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK
Internet Edition – http://imranhosein.org
Copyright reserved by the author
First published in 1996 by
Masjid Darul Qur’an,
1514 East Third Avenue,
Bayshore, NY 11760
Email: [email protected]
Internet Edition – http://imranhosein.org
Dedicated to my dear brother
of the Muslim Center of New York
Internet Edition – http://imranhosein.org
British Diplomacy and the Attack on the Caliphate
The Collapse of the Ottoman Caliphate and the Rise of
the Saudi-Wahhabi Nation-State
The First World War and the Abolition of the Ottoman
The Turkish Nationalists and the Caliphate
The Response of Al-Azhar University to the Abolition of
the Ottoman Caliphate
The Caliphate Conference, Cairo. May 1926.
The Saudi-Wahhabi Alternative to the Caliphate – The
World Muslim Congress, Makkah. June-July 1926
The Old World Of Islam Attempts a Revival: The
General Islamic Congress. Jerusalem. December 1931.
Internet Edition – http://imranhosein.org
This is a third publication in the Ansari Memorial...
...The Abbasid Revolution
The Abbasid Dynasty, known to its supporters as the ‘blessed dynasty’, which imposed its authority on the Islamic empire in 132/750, claimed to inaugurate a new era of justice, piety and happiness. The dynasty ruled the Islamic Caliphate from 750 to 1258 AD, making it one of the longest and most influential Islamic dynasties. For most of its early history, it was the largest empire in the world, and this meant that it had contact with distant neighbors such as the Chinese and Indians in the East, and the Byzantines in the West, allowing it to adopt and synthesize ideas from these cultures.
The replacement of the Umayyads by the Abbasids in the leadership of the Islamic community was more than a mere change of dynasty. It was a revolution in the history of Islam, as important a turning point as the French and Russian Revolutions in the history of the west. The Umayyad administration (661-750) of the Islamic Empire created serious grievances among various political, religious, social and ethnic groups. Their monopoly of power denied other people important administrative positions and the accompanying privileges and benefits. The Umayyads favored Syrian Arabs over other Muslims and treated mawali, newly converted Muslims, as second class citizens. The most numerous group of mawali were the Persians, who lived side by side with Arabs in the east who were angry at the favor shown...
...THE MIDDLE AGES
The rise and expansion of Islam, after the foundation by Mohammed, is an amazing story. Ultimately, the Muslims, as the believers of Islam are called, started a world-wide faith that today makes up the world’s second largest religious group after Christians. The role and status of women within Islam is one of essential contribution to its origins and continuation, but ever-changing roles.
Mohammed could not have foundedIslam alone. Marriage to his employer, the wealthy widow Khadija, allowed him the leisure and financial backing to pursue his new religious journey. Born in Mecca, Mohammed was raised by his grandfather and uncle when his parents died. At the age of twenty-five he married Khadija. Mecca was an important trading center for caravan trade between Medina, the Near East and India. An integral part of this caravan and commercial trade was raiding, and the Arabs were excellent warriors. These characteristics facilitated Islam to spread via the Muslim’s holy war or Jihad within a few decades beyond the Arabian Peninsula, first to the Near East, and then Northern Africa and parts of southern Europe, including Spain. As Islam came in contact with other societies, both monotheistic and polytheistic, there was much cultural integration. Consequentially, there was room for confusion and conflict as to the expectations and responsibilities of women’s lives. As in...