The Sunni-Shiite split actually started right after Muhammad's death in 632. His death led to the dispute over his successor. Since he was the founder of Islam, he was the undisputed leader. However, Mohammad died without a son (who would have automatically inherited his father's authority) and without a clear will.
The Muslims eventually split into two groups, the Sunnis ("tradition") and Shiites ("party of Ali"). Both sides had differing views on both who should be the leader of the Muslims and on the religion as a whole.
Today's Sunni-Shiite conflict revolves around the Sunnis acting violently against the Shiite government. The tension has escalated over the years, which led to the direct escalation violence and seriousness of the situation.
Shiites belief of ruling
The Shiites believed that whoever had the spiritual authority to succeed Muhammad should rule.They supported Ali, Muhammad's cousin/son in law because he was the only blood relative of Muhammad. Ali eventually succeeded Abu Bakr, which is what led to today's Shiite run government in Iraq.
The Shiites believe in Ali accords him divine status.
The name Shiites actually means "party of Ali" since they were his followers when deciding who should succeed Muhammad. The Shiite doctrine of the infallibility of the Imams position them as Prophets along side, or even above, the Prophet Mohammad. The Shiites have two additional versus in their Quran.
They claim that the the versus added were originally passed down to the Prophet and proved his choice of Ali as his successor. They claim it was deleted from the actual text and the Shiites simply re-inserted them into its version of the Quran.
Sunnis belief of ruling
The Sunni's believed that whoever was best equipped politically to maintain the Muslim empire should be in charge.They supported Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father in law, who was eventually named the first caliph (The chief Muslim...
...A Comparison Between the Sunnis and Shiites
Have you ever wondered about other religions that are out there and why they are out there? I have and that is why I chose to write my paper on the Sunnis and Shiites. Read on to learn more about a brief history and then I will break each of them into separate religions.
In books written on Islam the word "hadith" usually refers to the sayings or "traditions" which have been given from the Prophet. Muslims hold these to be the most important source of Islamic teachings after the Qur'an. A lot of books have been written in English about what the hadith means in Islam and a number of important translations have been made. Almost all the studies have been limited to the point of view of Sunni Islam and based on Sunni sources and collections. Practically no one has ever paid any attention to the different nature of the hadith literature in Shiism and the different sources from which the hadiths are recieved.
The main difference to be made between Shiite and Sunni hadiths is that in Shiism the traditions are not limited to those of the Prophet, but include those of the Imams as well. I will explain more of the distinctions later on. The difference between the two religions is still hard to distinguish even with easy to understand books like the Encyclopedia of World Faiths. There, the author of the article is aware...
...Sunnis vs. Shiites vs. Kurds
There are three ethnicity-based governments in Iraq that absolutely hate each other and do not get along at all. Many factors play into the instabilities of the governments ran by the Sunnis, Shiites, and Kurds. The roles of the Sunnis, Shiites, and Kurds greatly impact the modern and future issues ofIraq. The only problem existing between them is that they do not have the ability to interact with each other. The opposing views of the Sunni, Shiite, and Kurdish governments in Iraq make it difficult for them to unite and agree upon political issues, potentially leading to long-term political instability.
The three government groups in Iraq have different amounts of political power, residing in conflict within the nation. A factor that plays into political disputes in Iraq is the fact that the Sunni, Shiite, and Kurdish governments do not have an equal amount of political power. Iraq battles political infighting among the three governments in the past and today. While the power of the Kurds and Sunnis decreases, the Shiites’ power increases. Ever since the election for a transitional national assembly, immense corruption has come...
...between Shiite and Sunni Islam
Grand Canyon University
Differences between Shiite and Sunni Islam
Mohammed founded the religion around the seventh century in Medina, just north of Mecca. His religion was divided into two factions. The two branches that arose from his founding are the Sunni and the Shiites. This was due in part because Mohammed left no clear successor to fill his role as the sole leader. Ali, Mohammed’s son was finally named
“Shia” is short for Shi’atu “which means the followers of Imam Ali” or “a faction of Prophet Ali”. Ali was the first cousin of Mohammed and the Shiite’s believed that God had chosen Ali to be the successor upon Mohammed’s death. They also believe that Mohammed had also appointed Ali to be his successor.
The Sunni’s believed that Mohammed’s inline successors, the first four caliphs, rightfully took their places as leaders of all Muslims after Mohammed. They only recognize these heirs of the caliphs as the legitimate religious leaders. There are four major Sunni sub-sects. Most Sunnis follow the Hanafi doctrine named after scholar Abu Haneefa. It is said that over 85% of the Muslims are Sunni’s. Their belief is based on the Qur’an. This Qur’an is the format for the education of the Sunni Muslims. Sunni comes from the word meaning followers....
...Conflict Analysis: Sunni and Shiite
The conflict between the Sunni and the Shiites dates all the way back to the seventh century. These two groups are both Islamic but were split in two after the prophet Muhammad died. He passed leadership onto his close companion, Abu Bakr. However, many opposed this rule of Bakr. Numerous people believed that Ali ibn Abu Talib should be next in line; he was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law. Followers of Abu became the Sunnis, and followers of Ali became the Shiites.
The Shiites were very strict about who their leaders were. Only male children who are descendants of Ali can be a ruler. Whereas the Sunnis allowed any practicing Muslim to come into power, the only requirement being the authorities’ approval. Both of these groups believed in the sacred scripture of the Quran. The Shiites believe that their ruler has divine power. However, the Sunnis believe that the divine power of rulers ended with Muhammad. In both groups, men could marry up to four women. In addition, both groups celebrated their holy day on Friday. These small differences have very little to do with the fact of why they are actually fighting.
Both of the branches of Islam had famous rulers. When Muhammad died, Abu Bakr was elected caliph. The three successors to Abu were elected in a similar fashion. The second caliph,...
...Sunni and Shia
The Sunni and Shia are two sects that are derived from the Islam religion. The major difference between the two and the reason that both do not necessarily get along is the true successor of the Prophet Muhammad. As stated in the textbook, “The Shia sect originated as a party supporting the appointment of Ali-a cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad-and his descendants as caliphs” (Bentley, 212). A caliph is a spiritual leader of Islam or a ruler of the Baghdad, claiming to be the successor of Muhammad. Ali acted as a caliph after Muhammad died, but was killed by his enemies shortly after. Supporters of Ali started the different sect (Shia), in hopes of strengthening the belief that Ali and his descendants were the true heirs of the Prophet Muhammad.
Today, the Sunnis and the Shia’s still have their different beliefs, which causes friction between the two sects. For years the Sunni’s have mistreated the Shia for their religious views and they continue to do so. According to the text, “Although persecuted, the Shia survived and strengthened its identity by adopting doctrines and rituals distinct from those of the Sunnis (“traditionalist”), who accepted the legitimacy of the early caliphs” (Bentley, 212). When Saddam Hussein was the dictator of Iraq, he himself was a Sunni, who suppressed the Shia in his country. This became a problem when the United States invaded...
Several years after Muhammad's death, the various factions of the Islamic faith were formed. Many of Muhammad's relatives and companions were involved in the power struggle, and the war finally stabilized when Mu'awiyya, the governor of Syria, took control of the Caliphate. This marked the rise of the Umayyad dynasty which ruled Islam for quite some time. Although the Qur’an ordains that the division of Muslims into different sections is forbidden, three sects of Islam developed and emerged at the conclusion of the Islamic Civil War. These include the Sunni, Shiite, Ahmadiyya and Karijite. Of these four, the Sunni denomination is by far the largest, comprising of 90% of the world Muslim population, with Shi’a comprising of the second largest percentage.
The literal translation of the word Sunni is “habit” or usual practice. My assumption is that the habit or practice refers to the actions of Muhammad. So anyone claiming to follow the Sunnah, which are the actions of Muhammad and can show that they believe the Hadith, which are narrations of the actions of Muhammad, can consider him or herself to be a Sunni Muslim.
People of Sunni orientation believe that Muhammad had never chosen a successor before his death and therefore nobody can really properly succeed him or become the succeeding leader of the Caliphate other than his closest companions, or Shahaba....
...Determination of acetic acid in vinegar using acid-base titration
1. Scope The goal of this analytical procedure is to determine the acetic acid content of two samples of vinegar produced by Kolinska, Ljubljana, Slovenia. These samples are: Sample No. 1: vinegar made from wine, 4% Sample No. 2: vinegar made from alcohol, 9% The smallest quantity of the sample is 100 mL. Interesting results may be obtained by comparing the acidity of both samples of vinegar with factory analysis data. 2. Principle The content of acetic acid in vinegar will be determined by acid – base titration with the standard solution of sodium hydroxide with approximate concentration c(NaOH) = 1 mol/L. This is prepared using the primary standard reagent potassium hydrogen phthalate. The time for one titration is about 10 minutes. 2.1. Acid – base titration An acid – base titration is a procedure used in quantitative chemical analysis to determine the concentration of either an acid or a base. Titration is the slow addition of an acid (or a base) of known concentration from a burette (a narrow graduated cylinder) to a base (or an acid) of unknown concentration in an Erlenmeyer flask. We distinguish between strong and weak acids and also between strong and weak bases. So, four types of acid – base titrations are possible: strong acid – strong base, strong acid – weak base, weak acid – strong base, and weak acid – weak base. The end-point occurs when the stoichiometric amount of base (or acid) has been...
...Revolution and Reform of Developed Nations:
ISIS in Iraq
Throughout the year of 2014, we have heard a lot over the extremist group the Islamist State of Iraq and Iraq who is also known as ISIS or IS. This group has brought many challenges, and most importantly numerous casualties of innocent people to the state of Iraq and other countries’. Since the start of ISIS the United States has been working with Iraq to dismantle the terrorist group.
Just a rough history Iraq, it is located in the Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, and in between Iran and Kuwait (The World FactBook, 2014). The state inhabits roughly thirty-three million people, who are mainly Arab and speak Arabic with a religious background of Muslim (The WorldFactbook, 2014). We also need to keep in mind with the previous regime under Hussein and now ISIS, there has been many Christian families fleeing out of Iraq and into nearby states such as Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon, due not wanting to convert into Muslim religion.
Who is ISIS?
ISIS which also stands for Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, the group is predominantly Sunni jihadist, a jihadist is a person who believes the entire community of Muslims be governed under sharia law (Amy Zalman, 2014), and if any one objects to the believes they will be dealt with in violence. The jihadi term can be found in the Quran....