International Terrorism: Threat, Policy, and Response
This report examines international terrorist actions, threats, U.S. policies and responses. It reviews the nation’s use of tools at its disposal to combat terrorism, from diplomacy, international cooperation, and constructive engagement to physical security enhancement, economic sanctions, covert action, and military force. A modern trend in terrorism appears to be toward loosely organized, selffinanced, international networks of terrorists. Increasingly, radical Islamist groups, or groups using religion as a pretext, pose a serious threat to U.S. interests and to friendly regimes. Of concern as well is the growing political participation of extremist Islamist parties in foreign nations. Also noteworthy is the apparent growth of cross-national links among different terrorist organizations, which may involve combinations of military training, funding, technology transfer, or political advice. Looming over the entire issue of international terrorism is the specter of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Iran, seen as the most active state sponsor of terrorism, has been secretly conducting — and now openly seeks — uranium enrichment, and North Korea has both admitted to having a clandestine program for uranium enrichment and claimed to have nuclear weapons. Indications have also surfaced that Al Qaeda has attempted to acquire chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons.
U.S. policy toward international terrorism contains a significant military component, reflected in U.S. operations in Afghanistan, deployment of U.S. forces elsewhere for specific missions, and, according to the Administration and its supporters, the war in Iraq. Issues of interest to the 110th Congress include whether the Administration is providing sufficient information about the long-term goals and costs of its diverse strategy and whether military force is an optimally effective antiterrorism instrument when compared with other methods such as intelligenceenhanced law enforcement and pro-active public diplomacy.
Increasingly, a wide range of well-funded charitable and publicity activities of radical Islamist groups has led to broadened acceptance of extremist views in target populations. To the extent that nations fail to effectively address this “cold war of ideology,” a growing proportion of the world’s Moslem youth may grow up embracing extremist views that could ultimately lead to increased terrorism. As terrorism is a global phenomenon, a major challenge facing policymakers is how to maximize international cooperation and support without unduly compromising important U.S. national security interests and options. Other significant policy challenges include: (1) how to minimize the economic and civil liberties costs of an enhanced/tightened security environment, and (2) how to combat incitement to terrorism, especially in instances where such activity is state sponsored or countenanced. This report replaces CRS Issue Brief IB10119, Terrorism and National Security: Issues and Trends, by Raphael F. Perl. It will be updated periodically.
Topic: InternationalTerrorism Is a Product of Globalization
Course: Academic Reading & Writing II
Instructor: George Rueckert
Written by: Vakhobov Rustamjon; ID: 20111496
InternationalTerrorism Is a Product of Globalization
Thesis Statement: Globalization has been mostly a positive phenomenon in past decades, but since 9/11 it has been the major factor in the expansion of internationalterrorism.
I. Globalization is a complex process of global integrations in different aspects of life.
A. Globalization is a new phase in global history
B. The burden of globalization has increased to the world
1. The first phase of globalization is transition of civilizations from nomadic to agrarian and commercial.
2. The second phase of globalization covers the Western colonization
3. The third phase is the phase of technology and internet.
C. “Globalization is Americanization and its human face is Michael Jordan.”
D. The United States is a unipolar superpower.
1. Globalization has caused instability in the United States
2. The separation of power will help overcome the problem of terrorism
II. Internationalterrorism is the product of globalization
A. The relationship...
...Relate InternationalTerrorism with Ethno-National Identity Problem
What is the root cause of terrorism? What drives a terrorist group to commit acts of violence? Is it the environment they are born in to or is it a trait that is developed over time as a result of their upbringing? The term ethno-nationalism can be defined as “the combination of both ethnic and national identities in some way for a political purpose, usually to infer superiority over some other group or groups”. This identity is what brings a terrorist group together and serves to invigorate their extremist actions. Through an ethno-nationalism identity terrorists are able to not only empower their case of taking on the identity of “freedom fighters” but also to recruit and retain supporters willing to join their cause. Across the globe the ethno-nationalism identity problem is responsible for the dilemma of internationalterrorism.
Terrorism can be defined as the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. It is an act intended to cause fear perpetrated in the name of some type of political, ideological, or religious goal and is not concerned with the safety of civilians. Terrorist acts throughout the centuries have been performed with the goal of spreading a system of belief, viewpoint or opinion. Internationalterrorism is evident in almost every nation at one point in...
...Terrorism: Domestic or International Fight?
April 8, 2012
Professor Jennifer Moore
Terrorism: Domestic or International Fight?
Terrorism attacks are nothing new to the world. They have existed since the beginning of civilization, from a random attack of a different kingdom or country to random suicide bombings in the Middle East. A terrorist attack can be viewed from different perspectives, but Americans have changed their view on what a terrorist attack is and have even misconstrued that terrorists are solely Middle Eastern people. Ever since the catastrophic attack on U.S. soil on September 11, 2001, Americans have seen an increase of terrorist attacks targeting U.S. These attacks range from being committed on U.S. soil to foreign lands targeting U.S. troops, but Americans have not been the only targeted group.
People often ask themselves questions that leave them wondering of the cause that they are getting attack for or a certain area is targeted for what reasons. Certain areas are targeted though, because of either a certain ethnic group lives there, they are somehow involved in that area or even just because of religious background. Religious conflicts have been occurring in the Middle East for centuries because of the multitude of religious views; there are Jews, Christians, and Muslims, all who worship the same god but extremists believe their ideals are better than...
...Is Terrorism Ever Morally Defensible?
The term terrorism has many different definitions. The most accurate definition of terrorism is defined as the use of violence and intimidation, especially for political purposes.1 Terrorism is based on an act of violence. It kills, hurts or injures many people who are innocent for the reason of making a point or for political objectives. Most of the acts of violence caused fromterrorism is either manipulated by another person or leader or is intended to make a strong point from the act of violence. The term ethnocentrism can also influence terrorists because they may feel that their views or culture should over rule or power of everybody else. For example, the Ku Klux Klan was a terrorist group that was formed originally from six confederate Caucasian men who manipulate their group into violent acts costing lives of innocent people ("Spartacus Educational: Ku Klux Klan" 10/20/2011). The act of terrorism causes violence, deaths, conflicts or wars, devastation, mourning of the deaths of innocent people, loss for families, damage to our environment and society etc. There are not many arguments that conclude to why terrorism is understandable or justifiable in our society. The violent act of terrorism is not and will not ever be morally defensible. Terrorism evidently proves how it affects innocent...
Jihad is a term that the West has come to know and fear. The Arabic word, Jihad, means struggling or striving and applies to any effort exerted by anyone. Jihad is really a struggle in life. Extremists misinterpret the religion into believing the religion implies that they should fight with anyone that is against Islam. Extremists use their religion as a scapegoat. Those who are involved with Jihad are a very small percentage of Muslims who are from the extreme, radical, and violent wing of Islamic Fundamentalism.
They are very passionate, religious, and anti Western. They tend to interpret Jihad in terms of personal struggle towards purity. What many people don’t know is that Jihad is not a declaration of war against other religions. The Quran specifically refers to Jews and Christians as "people of the book" who should be protected and respected. All three faiths worship
the same God. Allah is just the Arabic word for God, and is used by Christian Arabs as well as Muslims.
Jihad means struggle and that means any struggle, personal struggles, spiritual struggle, or more popular term for these days a political struggle. In Islam we have no right to fight anyone for any reason except for self-defense. The media plays a large role in the Middle East. It portrays hate back and forth by religious leaders who call death to Americans. Not only is the insidious...
...Terrorism Its Causes and Effects !!
Terrorism has become a worldwide phenomenon with its many faces and manifestations. State-sponsored terrorism presents its worst form. Pol Pot in Cambodia let loose such a terrorism which killed millions of Cambodians. In India terrorism has been there in many States. Terrorists do not hesitate in using even the most cruel methods of violence and do not spare even women and children.
Essay And Article On : Terrorism In India !!
In Punjab it has been Pakistan sponsored terrorism. It has been in control in Punjab but still not eliminated. Poverty, unemployment, deprivation and illiteracy make a good breeding ground for militancy extremism. In north-eastern States of India the terrorism has been on the rise and nothing effective has been done to check it. The tribal’s of these States have been victims of long neglect, deprivation, economic backwardness and alienation. Similarly People’s War Group (PWG) has been very active in Andhra Pradesh and has won support, sympathy and participation of the rural public in Telengana.
Problem Of Terrorism
The problem of terrorism need to be tackled on many fronts. It is a global menace and requires global cooperation between powers of the world to check and eradicate so devastating a phenomenon as terrorism. The biggest threat that the nation-state...
...In the past years, terrorism has increased quite gradually, in both attacks and fatalities. Source 2 shows a graph comparing the number of Jihadist attacks Pre British and American invasion to post invasion stats. The pre invasion statistics shows that there were just 25 worldwide whereas post invasion there was a drastic increase in attacks to 200 per year. Source 20 shows the number of terrorist attack incidents and fatalities from the 1st of October 1998 through to the 8th of November 2006. From 1/1/98-9/11/2001 the number of fatalities per month were 176 however there was a great different between 9/12/2001-8/11/2006 as the number rose to 444. The source came from the National Memorial Institute for the prevention of terrorism in 2006, this shows me that it is a reliable source but it only gives stats for America and no other, therefore it would not prove whether or not terrorism has increased globally. In recent years terror is everywhere internationally and has be caused by many different problems in the world, for example media, politics, poverty, terrorism seems to be the answer for people either in deprived areas or for those angered by foreign affairs. Yet it is high debated of which cause is the main cause.
People around the world have different views of what terrorism's final definition actually is. Source 1 shows different definitions given by some big international organisations. The...
...Question: Many people regard terrorism as the most important issue confronting our world. Is this the case or is there something else? What do you think? Support your arguments with evidence from reference to contemporary sources.
Since the attack on the World Trade Center in 2001 that shocked the world, people began to wonder how could possibly groups of people terrorized people for the sake of fulfilling their goals. Countries begin to strengthen their national defense through advanced weapons and intelligence to avoid a group of people from terrorizing their citizens, and researches about terrorism and how to eradicate terrorists have become very popular as to understand about terrorism would give benefits to anyone who reads it. It seems that the world’s focus is set on this threat and everyone forget that life is not just to get saved from terrorist attacks. This essay will give arguments that there are other important issues confronting our world than terrorism.
Before we study further about other important issues that confront our world than terrorism issues, we need to know what terrorism is. Terrorism can be defined as a reaction that is considered as a right thing to do by using repressive approaches and abomination which impacts physically and more importantly the psychological being of everyone who is terrorized. (What 2010, p. Online). It is no wonder that...