Brain drain 黑色字是下载的书上的，红色是stalker的 Definition
The brain drain has been as a problem for less-developed countries. Bhagwati and hamada and argued that educated and skilled immigrants take with them the education and training that was, at least part, paid for by people remaining in the source country.. In effect, capital-scarce developing countries were investing in human capital that was subsequently carried out of the country when educated people immigrated to high-income countries. Losses of skilled and semi-skilled blue collar workers can usually be made up relatively cheaply and quickly. A more serious problem for developing countries is the loss of more highly educated professional workers.
主要论点Brain drain is related to the schumpeterian growth model. 离开的原因 第一个是为了赚更多的钱
T he brain drain can be interpreted most simply using the “human capital” model. Workers who embody high levels of skill are seeking to maximize the return on this investment. 例子： the nurses who leave the philippines will often have invested large sums in their own tuition- up to $140..........投资很大在学费上。 1991年在菲律宾只能赚146美元一个月，但是在美国能赚2500一个月。 例子：the profession of nursing provides an interesting example that is often used to illustrate the negative effects of the brain drain on source countries. Qualified nurses form poor countries can raise their incomes many fold in high -income country Strong pull-factor in developed countries. The relative differences in wages between these countries and developed countries like the USA and those of the European Union remain very large 第二个原因： but not all professionals leave simply to earn more money. Many emigrate because there are simply no jobs available: developing countries are often producing many more trained people than their economies can absorb. 举例子（page119）
第三个原因： many educated people are also lost to developing countries because they travel abroad for education and do not return. But even countries with relatively well-developed university...
This essay report is going to discuss migration and different types of migration, it is also going to confer why people move using a theory of Push and Pull factors. Migration is a broad topic therefore this discussion is going to narrow the topic down using a concept of Internationalmigration as its main focus and foundation and more importantly the main causes of internationalmigration in South Africa. Using a South African case this discussion will also ask why the country is losing its skilled workers to developed countries and answer that using theory and historical factors. South Africa is a favorite destination for most African immigrants more especially the Zimbabwean Nationals this discussion will attempt to explain the reasons for its appeal to African immigrants.
What is Migration?
Migration in its broadest sense according to Weeks connotes the permanent movement of people from one place to another (Weeks 2008: 262). In other words migration can be explained as the change and detachment from the familiar dwelling or habitation to a wholly new surrounding with the intention to stay there on permanent basis (Weeks 2008: 262). Migration is different however from sojourner and mobility which also involve movement from one place to another however the reason why these two processes do not qualify...
Migration, Remittances, Poverty and Inequality
Ernesto M. Pernia
The paper looks into the effects of internationalmigration and remittances on household incomes and well-being, poverty reduction, human capital investment, saving, and regional development in the home country. Remittances appear to raise average incomes for all income groups but more so for the richer households than for the poorer ones, a finding that is consistent with that in several Latin American countries. Such eyeballing of the data is supported by econometric analysis which further reveals that remittances enhance household savings, spending on education and health care, and help the poor move out of poverty. Analysis at the regional level shows that, ceteris paribus, remittances also appear to contribute importantly to regional development, although overall increases in regional incomes do not seem to benefit low income households as much as the upper income ones.
Migration, Remittances, Poverty and Inequality The Philippines By
Ernesto M. Pernia*
* Professor of Economics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101. Very able research assistance was provided by Jackson L. Ubias, Ph.D. candidate at the U.P. School of Economics.
The movement of peoples from the less developed countries to the more developed ones is an age-old phenomenon. Over time, with socioeconomic...
...Internationalmigration is no easy matter, and people don’t make the choice casually to uproot their lives and leave home and family behind. Migration occurs for many reasons. Many people leave their home countries in order to look for better economic opportunities abroad. Others migrate to be with family members or because of political conditions in their countries. Education is another reason for internationalmigration, as students pursue their studies abroad.
These migrants can be divided into two large groups, permanent and temporary. Permanent migrants aim to establish their permanent residence in a new country and perhaps obtain that country’s citizenship. Temporary migrants aim to stay for a limited periods of time; perhaps until the end of a particular program of study or for the duration of their work contract. Both types of migrants have a significant effect on the economies and societies on both countries.
Almost all migrants use the same reasons for migrating to a different country. First, it could be due to employment opportunities and the wage gap among geographical locations. We all know how the wage rate of $15-20/day in the United States had been encouraging the Mexicans to leave their country. It is also for this wage difference that many people from third world Asian countries are gambling their lives to go to the Middle East, Europe or to some other countries.
Philippines’ Children Gone Bad: Impacts of Labor Migration
Everyday there are about more than 3,100 Filipinos temporarily leaving the country in search of jobs (POEA). In the Philippines, many parents believe that labor migration is their only solution to finding more job opportunities in other countries. However, parents have not considered the impact that will be imprinted on their children when they are separated. Statistics have shown a dramatic increase in labor migration in the Philippines since 1970. Thousands of children are growing up apart from either one of their parents because of labor migration. Children were not allowed to follow them because their parents could not take care of them while they are working. Thus, parents have to leave their children behind but send back remittance as a source of income. Even though remittance is good for their children and family by paying for their education in the Philippines, children still suffer emotionally because they are without the care of their parents. Researchers found an increase in emotional insecurities, anger, abandonment, confusion, and lack of familial support among children with one or no parents, which result in poor performance in school (Parrenas Global). Parental neglect causes this prominent problem of care deficit among many children in the Philippines. This not only affects those families that are separated, but also...
...Running head: ETHICS OF MIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION
Ethics of Migration and Immigration is a key question for everyone
Case Study Paper: Task #1
Instructor: Ralph Argen
ETHICS OF MIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION
In 2008, the United States, other countries, and political parties were struggling to define hype procedures, and policies with immigrants surrounding immigration. The nation’s debate will always involve the economy and legal issues of one person and a group of immigrants.
The Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University have applied that the question on this policy needs to be examine; to further understand the ethics of migration and immigration. Reconstructing and examining this human perspective will allow policy makers to mode this problem. Also, it will help to develop a fair policy in the future.
Ethics of migration is and have always been a complicated situation. There have been many reasons in history why and how people migrate throughout this nation. There have always been some tension on the defect migration has on receiving and transitioning people. However, due to the problem; the nations have thought about encouraging or maybe discourage, or limit a certain amount of time in one country. My paper will cover specific times in history when migration took place and it will give a deeper thought of migration. Also,...
...INTERNAL MIGRATION IN INDIA
Migration is a process of social change where an individual, alone or accompanied by others, because of one or more reasons of economic betterment, political upheaval, education or other purposes, leaves one geographical area for prolonged stay or permanent settlement in another geographical area.
Migration of persons within national borders is far greater in magnitude than migration acrossinternational borders and has enormous potential to contribute to economic prosperity, social cohesion and urban diversity.
Internal migration is an essential and inevitable component of the economic and social life of the country, given regional imbalances and labour shortages, and safe migration should be promoted to maximize its benefits.
Causes of MigrationMigration in India is mostly influenced by Social Structures and pattern of development. The development policies by all the governments since Independence have accelerated the process of migration. Uneven development is the main cause of Migration.
Added to it, are the disparities, Inter regional and amongst different socio-economic classes. The landless poor who mostly belong to lower castes, indigenous communities and economically backward regions constitute the major portion of Migrants.
In the very large Tribal Regions of India...
...extent is economic migration a threat or a benefit to developed countries?
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another. Migration can be international (movement between different countries) or internal (movement within a country, often from rural to urban areas). In this article we consider the impacts of migration on the individual, the place left behind by the migrant and the place hosting the migrant. We also consider the push and pull factors of migration. More people are migrating today than at any other point in human history. Migrants travel in many different ways and for many different reasons. People move in order to improve their standard of living, to give their children better opportunities, or to escape from poverty, conflict and famine. Today, with modern transportation and communications, more people are motivated and able to move.
People migrate for many different reasons. These reasons can be economic, social, political or environmental. Social migration involves moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family and friends. Political migration involves moving to escape political, religious or ethnic persecution, or conflict. Environmental migration – causes of this type of migration include natural disasters such as flooding or drought. In this essay, I will refer only to...
...Social Cost of Migration on families/children
It is not only now that migration of parents have been prevalent, it has been a long debated topic among foundations that focus on the welfare of the family and of the children. Due to the Philippines’ long history of low unemployment rate, many a family has resorted to migration, that is, looking for jobs abroad so as to support their family in their country of origin. The process ofmigration, no matter how beneficial to the family income-wise has effects on the family being left at home. Although migration has a couple of positive effects, its negative effects have greater weight as opposed to its positive counterpart.
So far there had been one common purpose for parental migration in foreign countries, that is, to support their families at home. In the last decade, remittances have been the second largest source of income for most families in developing countries. Remittances, not just help support families of migrants but it also contributes to the aggregate strength of the country’s peso value against other currencies. Therefore, migrants do not only help their own families but in the process they become modern heroes of the country. It also “…relaxes the household budget, enables households in developing countries to increase expenditures on health, to invest in the human capital of children reducing labour participation and...