1.1. Definition of intellectual capital and a brief history of IC management
Before someone can measure something, he/she has to know what to count. So how should intellectual capital be defined? A universally accepted definition is the first step toward standardization, but still it is hard to find the best one for "intellectual capital". In this section I'll define intellectual capital and study the history of its development.
Intellectual capital is knowledge that can be exploited for money-making or other useful purpose. The term combines the idea of intellect with the economic idea of capital, the saving of benefits to be invested in producing more goods and services. Intellectual capital includes the skills and knowledge a company has developed about how to make its goods or services; individual employees or groups of employees whose knowledge is deemed critical to a company's continued success; and its aggregation of documents about processes, customers, research results, and other information of value to a competitor that is not public knowledge. 
According the article of Andrew Brown and others "Managing Intellectual Capital", intellectual capital not only includes what are commonly known as legally enforceable intellectual property rights (e.g., patents, trademarks, copyrights) but also all tangible and intangible aspects of intellectual information that a company has developed and accumulated over the years. Most of the resources propose such a formula for identifying the value of IC: The value of a company's IC assets is the difference between the company's book value and market value.
Illustration 1 illustrates an IC pyramid, which shows that intellectual capital comprises not only legally protected rights but the firm's tangible and intangible assets. It is crucial that a company's information protection practices be tailored to address the risks associated with a global marketplace, rapid advancements in technology and telecommunications, and business relationships including outsourcing.
Tangible assets are assets that may be physically or electronically conveyed in or out of a company. This includes all information resources such as databases and business records, as well as documented procedures that embody the knowledge, skills and experiences of a company's former and current employees. Since the information revolution of the 1990s, firms have been generating and communicating vast amounts of data at an exponential rate each year. This poses significant challenges for firms seeking to manage the internal and external communication of information to appropriate stakeholders in a manner that protects the firm's overall IC. 
Intangible assets are the goodwill and relationships between a company and its customer/suppliers; the innovative ideas that ensure the viability of a company, and; the company's human capital. Although intangible assets have no physical form, they are as valuable as the legally enforceable IP rights and tangible assets. But protecting the intangible assets is more difficult and is highly dependent on the firm's human assets. Success in the 21st century business environment requires significant emphasis on managing intangible assets as strategic tools. [1, 2, 6]
The Conceptual Thinkers
Trying to think backwards of the roots of defining IC, Patric H. Sullivan in his article talks about the evolution of intellectual capital management as a discipline...
3.Elements of intellectualcapital
5. Effects upon economy
6.Uses of intellectualcapital
8. Reference list
Specialists noted that in recent decades it has been an expansion of the concept of "new economy" as a new approach related to economics. This new concept is different from the classical economy which is characterized by balance and stability, through the fact that it traces the boundaries of an universe more complex and more structured than we could ever imagine . The end of the 20th century is associated with the birth of a new outlook on nature and science, that brings people a little closer to nature, a science that makes human intelligence and creativity an expression of a fundamental trend in the universe.
Taking into account this new perspective on the economy and on the society that is based on knowledge, professor Quash from London School of Economics says that we live in a world that focuses on the economic value of intangible assets. This way, ideas worth billions, while the products still cost less.
The society of the third millennium has employees who are valuable because of theirs knowledge. I n many of these companies, the value does not consist of tangible assets, but of...
...Write a case study of a teacher / educator you consider to be a public intellectual and explain why.
During this assignment I am going to do a case study on a person I consider to be a public intellectual. There are a number of discourses surrounding the ideology of what it means to be a public intellect. In regards to this essay I will be defining a public intellect in accordance with Gramsci view of an organic intellectual as, ‘the function of the intellectual is to help the oppressed understand their own exploitative class positioning’ (Hoben, undated, p4). In accordance with this I will base my case study on Dianne Lee, who was a lecturer in a college I attended. Her academic disciplines were sociology, history and English Language and Literature. Despite being a lecturer, Dianne was also a humanitarian who actively participated in a number of charities, in the United Kingdom and various third world countries. I would consider Dianne to be a pubic intellect, and for the remainder of this essay I aim to show the characteristics such as knowledge and activism, she possesses which support and enable her to be a public intellect.
One of the key characteristics of a public intellect is the knowledge they possess and how they use it to incorporate change. According to Said (1993) a public intellects mission is to advance human freedom and Knowledge (Lightman, undated). Even though she was a college lecturer,...
Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section ...........................................................
Developing and Connecting Cyber Security Leaders Globally ......................................
Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security ...........................................................
The United States National Commission ..........................................................................
Based on the scenario from unit 1 and 2, this paper discusses the several roles the government and private organization play in the cyber security system. How they become leaders and defend their intellectual property from the intrusion of competitors. The importance of having a solid foundation on which to build their business; while at the same time maintaining a code of ethics based on their views of how security is implemented in a global level.
Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section
Based on the scenario provided on the original assignment, intellectual property plays a very important role to the topic statement. In incorporating from the web resources Computer...
...Intellectualcapital-Tomorrow’s assets, today’s challenge
This report has the following objectives: Defining the intellectualcapital; exploring how to change the tacit knowledge into intellectual knowledge; suggesting how to turn intellectualcapital into revenue; highlighting the intellectual management in enterprises. With increasing emphasis on that intellectual property is the greatest asset, this report also investigates the ways to protect intellectualcapital in company.
Key words: intellectualcapital; tacit knowledge; intellectual management
The most important assets companies own today are often not tangible goods, equipment, financial capital, or market share, but the intangibles: patents, the knowledge of workers, and the information about customers and channels and past experience that a company has in its institutional memory. (Thomas A. Stewart’s)
1 Defining the intellectualcapital
* SEC Commissioner Wallman describes intellectualcapital as assets currently valued at zero on the balance sheet, including items such as the following:
Assets booked at...
...Evolution of Human Resource to Human Capital: A Strategic Shift
As per the Darwin’s theory of evolution, everything has to evolve in order to sustain its identity. Corporate and its environment are changing every day as per the needs and behaviour of the customer. New strategies and concepts are evolving and the old concepts are either getting modified or are getting redundant if not practised. Knowledge of attracting, selecting, deploying and developing talent and strategies has given a competitive advantage to the companies. In line of this Human Resource, that was considered as a supporting coordinate in strategy formulation, now has taken a front lead in capital generation and hence regarded as the Human Capital. Peter Drucker famously defined a knowledge economy as one in which the human brain provides the primary means of production. He then noted the obvious corollary: that an organization’s most valuable resource is lodged in the heads of its employees and goes home with them at night. [Reference4]. This is how firms have started involving employee participation at all levels for decision making and management forecasts (be it in any field, i.e. Operations, finance, Marketing, Human Resource department etc.) and not only a pre-selected group of individuals. Concepts like brainstorming of ideas have also evolved with the concept of human capital. In this article, let us first define human resource and human...
...On intellectual craftsmanship
C. Wright Mills
TO THE INDIVIDUAL social scientist who feels himself a part of the classic tradition, social science is the practice of a craft. A man at work on problems of substance, he is among those who are quickly made impatient and weary by elaborate discussions of method-and-theory-in-general; so much of it interrupts his proper studies. It is much better, he believes, to have one account by a working student of how he is going about his work than a dozen, codifications of procedure' by specialists who as often as not have never done much work of consequence. Only by conversations in which experienced thinkers exchange information about their actual ways of working can a useful sense of method and theory be imparted to the beginning student. I feel it useful, therefore, to report in some detail how I go about my craft. This is necessarily a personal statement, but it is written with the hope that others, especially those beginning independent work, will make it less personal by the facts of their own experience.
It is best to begin, I think, by reminding you, the beginning student, that the most admirable thinkers within the scholarly community you have chosen to join do not split their work from their lives. They seem to take both too seriously to allow such dissociation, and they want to use each for the enrichment of the other. Of course, such a split is the prevailing convention among men in general,...
Hidden Intellectual Summary
Graff writes about channeling student’s hidden intellectual with street smarts in their academics. In his article he states that students have more intellectual besides school smarts. He also says that there are super intelligent people out there with only street smarts and they did horrible in school. In addition to that Gruff believes that our teachers should be teaching things that interests our students, encourage them to become more opinioned and more involved with their school work. Gruff implies that most people believe that they should worry about their school work more than tapping into our student’s street smart and instead of preparing them for the real world. I simply agree with Gruff on his theory on channeling the students street smarts through their academics will get them more involved. On page 22 Gruff explains that these intellectual resources go unnoticed because they are tied to anti- intellectual interests. Despite the students that do well with school they don’t have street smarts. So everything they teach in school to the students that are good at it are interested in learning about Plato, Shakespeare, the French revolution and nuclear fission, but they have no interest in cars, clothing fashions, sports and T.V (22). In addition to that he also states a question about how teachers can tease out the critical theory in student’s street smarts....
...important and the key element to the success of the organization – its employees. In service related businesses tangible assets contribute far less to the value of the service than do the intangible assets. These intangible assets are represented by the accumulated and current knowledge of the entity’s past and present employees. The abilities of all the employees of an organization at all the levels – management, supervisory and ordinary – to produce value from their knowledge and capabilities of their mind are known as HUMAN CAPITAL ASSETS.
THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN CAPITAL ASSETS
Value is created when intangible resources are deployed and degrades when they remain unused. Today knowledge or more colloquially, intelligence and brainpower have become the key determinant for the economic and business success. The key success factor of an individual business enterprise is no longer its sheer size or the number of tangible assets it controls – It is its Human Capital.
The importance of the human resources of a company can be illustrated in several ways. The market prices of corporate securities often reflect values substantially different from those indicated by the recorded values of the individual assets. Obviously, a number of intangible assets including human resources continue to remain unrecorded. Early evidence suggested that the replacement costs of human resources are quite substantial. In a survey, five hundred corporate...