Ancient cultures did not believe the Earth to be the spherical object we know Earth to be today. The ancient Chinese people believed the sky was a round dome surrounded by a square Earth. Ancient Egyptian’s believed the world to be a flat disk floating in the ocean. Many followers of the writings in the bible interpreted the angels standing in the four corners of the Earth as a reference to a flat Earth. (Russel, 1997)
Over the course of centuries, our understanding of the solar system and what part our planet plays in the galaxies expanded. Although some of the theory's were not readily accepted by the masses, overtime, scientific discoveries could not be refuted and the round earth concept could not be refuted.
^ Russel (1997) The Myth of the Flat Earth http://veritas-ucsb.org Retrieved from http://veritas-ucsb.org/library/russell/FlatEarth.html
Task 1 Section 1
Around 500 BC, Pythagoras theorized that the Earth was round because the moon was round. He observed the moon as it moved through its orbital cycle. Specifically the line between the part of the moon in the light and in the dark. (Unknown Author, 1999)
The concept that the Earth was not flat, but a sphere dates back to the 6th century by the Greek. Aristotle, who was a Greek philosopher, advocated the Earth was a sphere. He came to this conclusion by observing the circular shadow cast on the moon during a lunar eclipse. (Fowler, 2008) Eratosthenes calculated the Earth circumference in 240 BC using trigonometry. His knowledge of the angle of elevation of the sun at noon. He based the calculations on the assumption the Earth was a sphere and the suns rays were parallel. (Rubins, 2003)
^ Unknown Author (1999) Greek Anatomy http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk retrieved from http://www-history.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Greek_astronomy.html ^ Fowler (2008) Aristotle retrieved from http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/aristot2.html ^ Rubins (2003) Eratosthenes http://juliantrubin.com retrieved from http://juliantrubin.com/bigten/eratosthenes.html
Task 1 Section 1
I'M GLAD THE EARTH IS ROUND
As more and more early scientists made discoveries within our Milky Way galaxy and beyond, the mass’s accepted the theory that the Earth was a sphere. In 1492, Columbus and his three commissioned ships made a voyage heading west to lay claim to the land in the east. By traveling west to make land fall to the east would provide significantly improved trade routes, saving a lot of time. Although the trip lasted a lot longer than expected and the land he reached wasn’t where he was expecting to end up, this epic adventure paved the way for many more explorers to reach new land without the fear of falling off the edge of the Earth. If the Earth was not round, how would:
Satellites and other man made space vehicles would have a impossible time orbiting the earth?
Efficient air travel across the continents and oceans?
Task 1 Section 2
HURRICANE KATRINA - LANDFALL
August 29, 2005 hurricane Katrina made landfall in southeast Louisiana. What started as a category 1 storm over the Bahamas, strengthened over the warm Gulf waters and made landfall as a category 3 storm. The catastrophic failure of the levee system allowed the surge of sea water to flood the city of New Orleans making this storm the most costliest nature disaster as well as making the list of the top 5 deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. (Shah, 2005) President Bush declared a state of emergency two days after making landfall. FEMA and other government and...
...MICROWAVE POPCORN—NAME BRAND OR GENERIC?
A. Project Design Plan
Popcorn is a favorite snack when a family sits down to watch a movie. With the convenience of microwave popcorn, within two to three minutes you can have your snack while enjoying your movie. The problem is finding the right brand of microwave popcorn that pops the most kernels. I am going to take three different brands of popcorn and find out which one pops the most kernels. We all want the most out of anything we purchase.
A1. Literature Review
I found multiple web sites performing this same type of experiment. I chose two sites to use for comparison of my work. The fist site I viewed showed Orville Redenbacher’s brand was the best popping corn. However, they counted popped and un-popped kernels to get a percentage of popped kernels. The second site I viewed showed that the Act II brand had the least amount of un-popped kernels. Their experiment is comparable to mine. They counted only the un-popped kernels to get a percentage of un-popped kernels. Just like the second site viewed, I am only focusing on un-popped kernels.
A2a. Experimental Design Steps
1. Purchase three different brands of microwave popcorn. Same flavor (butter, kettle corn, natural, etc.) and same size bags, or as close to the same size as possible.
2. Create a data sheet with five columns and three rows. Label the first column “brand name”, label the next three columns with “bag 1, bag 2, and bag 3”. Label the final...
...INT1 NATURAL SCIENCE
PART 1 CELL: HOW OUR
In the 1600s the theory of living organisms
is explained by Spontaneous Generation.
Spontaneous Generation stated that all life
arose abruptly from inanimate matter. Later
in 1653, Robert C. Hooke discovers the cell
while he is looking at a slice or cork
through a microscope at 50x. After many
years of research from voluminous
scientist, in the late 1800s Theodor
Schwann proposes that all living things are
made of cells.
BEFORE CELLS WERE
The idea of
He believed that
formed from nothing.
In other words, life
could come from
PIVOTAL CHANGE: THE
DISCOVERY OF THE CELL
• Robert C. Hooke in 1665
discovered the cell by
looking at a cork slice
using a primitive compound
• Hooke observed a empty
spaces within walls and
termed them pores or cells.
• Hooke triggered the theory
of the cell and set a trend
of scientists making
discoveries by looking
through microscopes on
of Cork by
MODERN CONCEPT: ALL
LIVING THINGS ARE
FORMED OF CELLS
• Theodor Schwann
professed that all animals
and plants are made of
cells in 1839.
• Schwann established the
idea that every mature
animal tissue is
composed of embryonic
• This was an vast change
theory of life...
...INT1 Task 1
Hurricane Satellite Image, NOAA, n.d., retrieved from: http://noaa.gov/features/02_monitoring/inland_flooding.html
From folklore and proverbs to modern radar technology, the scientific
understanding of weather prediction has evolved through time. Several
inventions such as the thermometer, barometer and even satellites have given
way to immense knowledge of weather conditions. Mild, sunny days are
perfect for picnics, but those aren’t the weather conditions that led to the
advances in weather predictions. “Severe weather events such as tornadoes,
tropical storms, hurricanes, floods, lightning strikes and extremes of heat or
cold can be costly and deadly. Knowing how to recognize threatening weather
conditions, where to get reliable information, and how to respond to this
information can help save lives.” (http://education.noaa.
Weather Folklore as Forecasts
Early weather forecasting consisted of folklore and proverbs passed down
through generations long before the invention of weather instruments or
Red sky at night, sailor's delight.
Red sky in morning, sailors take
“A reddish sunset means that the air is dusty and dry.
Since weather in North American latitudes usually
moves from west to east, a red sky at sunset means dry
weather—good for sailing—is moving east.
Conversely, a reddish sunrise means that dry air from
the west has already passed over...
Lake Washington is a large freshwater lake (Lake
Lake Washington is approximately 33.82 square miles (Lake
Lake Washington’s maximum depth is 214 feet (Lake
Lake Washington has two main tributaries. The Cedar River
and the Sammamish River (Lake Washington, 2013).
Lake Washington’s main outlet is the Ship Canal to Puget
Sound (Lake Washington, 2013).
• Lake Washington is located in King County
Washington (Lake Washington, 2013).
• Lake Washington is located between 4 cities;
Seattle to the West, Bellevue to the East,
Renton to the South, and Kenmore to the
• The map coordinates for Lake Washington
are 47.62155, -122.25576 (Find latitude and
longitude with Google Maps, 2013).
(Duane Raver, 2013)
DOZENS OF FISH SPECIES
DOZENS OF PLANT LIFE
INCLUDING THE FOLLOWING:
INCLUDING THE FOLLOWING:
• Coastal Cutthroat trout
• Rainbow Trout
• Coontail, Hornwort
• Brazilian Elodea
• Large Mouth Bass
• Common Elodea
• Small Mouth Bass
• Chinook, Coho, and Sockeye Salmon
• Yellow Flag
• Yellow Perch
• Duck weed
• Black Crappie
• Purple Loofstrife
(Lake Washington Purple
INT1 Task 2
Cumberland Falls State
Resort Park is located
within the upper portion
of the Daniel Boone
National Forest in
Kentucky near the
border to Tennessee.
Black Bear Sign
● Black bears
● White-tailed deer
● Wild turkeys
● Gray fox
● Red cockade woodpecker
● Wood duck
● Lady slipper orchid
● Mountain laurel
● Rosebay rhododendron
● 1,657 acres
● 68 foot tall waterfall
● lunar rainbow
(moonbow) can be seen
on full moon nights
● steep slopes & large
Current Human Impact
Campers at the Cumberland Falls
State Resort Park are prohibited
from bringing firewood to
campgrounds from outside the state
of Kentucky to prevent more rapid
spread of Emerald Ash Borer beetles
into the state parks.
Emerald Ash Borers are an invasive
insect species to Kentucky and are
native to Asia. They have killed
millions of ash trees causing tens of
millions of dollars in damages.
Current Human Impact
Trash and other debris
are carried down the
Cumberland River to
the waterfall area and
get caught in the rocks
resulting in a littered
park area. Campers and
other tourists also
dump litter in the park.
Future Human Impact
If campers continue to bring in non-local
firewood, the Emerald Ash Borer could destroy
millions more ash trees resulting in a...
...INT1 TASK 3
Which Popcorn Brand would give you More Popped Kernels?
By: Sheneater Jackson-Reese
Project Design Plan
Popcorn is one of the snack foods you will go to eat at the theater when watching a movie, or when you are at home doing movie night with the family or friends. Popcorn was also used to make different decorations all the way back to the 4700 B.C. If you don’t microwave your popcorn enough, then all the kernels will not pop and you would not have much popcorn to enjoy. If you pop the popcorn too much you would end up burning the popcorn. Different brands of microwave popcorn you have to cook at a different timeframe, so you can get all the popcorn you can out of one bag. But the question I am going to prove is which brand of popcorn would give you more popped kernels.
Each brand of popcorn has different vary of time to microwave popcorn. Different people have done different times, and different microwaves watts in order to determine the right time to take out microwave popcorn. Popcorn kernels have a very hard endosperm with a small amount of moist starch in the center. When heated, steam created inside the kernels, a moist center causes the kernel to expand or pop open. When steam is released in the mini explosion, the kernel is turned inside out and the soft center becomes filed with air. (Isley, 2015)
Chicago TRS did her own experiment at work with co-workers to see who can make the perfect bag of popcorn without burning...
INT1 Task 3
Will frozen popcorn kernels yield higher output?
Amy L. Tiller
Project Design Plan
The experiment will determine if frozen popcorn kernels yield a higher amount of cooked popcorn than those stored and cooked from room temperature. Will kernels stored in a home freezer for 24 consecutive hours contain a higher or lower yield of popcorn once cooked? Through this experiment I intend to find how to create the highest possible yield of popcorn. Six brands of popcorn kernels will be purchased from a locally owned and operated grocer. The brands shall be identical in the following ways: weight, ingredients, and brand. Three of the six bags will be stored inside of a freezer for 24 consecutive hours. The other three bags will be stored on the counter top allowed to be stored at room temperature of approximately 68 degrees Farenheit.
1. Independent Variable: Temperature of storage.
2. Dependent Variable: Kernel per bag popped.
3. Controlled Variables: Cooking time and temperature.
Through observation of the test results, we will know which method of storage will yield the higher amount of cooked popcorn.
Studies conducted to reveal the highest yield of popcorn have in fact shown that different brands yield different popping results. One study found that, “Jolly Time popcorn had the lowest amount of un-popped kernels.” Sean Boyd (2010). A second study conducted showed that “ActII was the winner.” Ben...
...Project Design Plan
This experiment is to test the theory that the temperature of water affects the duration of time it takes to water to reach freezing?
Hot water freezing faster than cold has been observed for many centuries. The earliest known reference to this effect is by Aristotle, who wrote: "The fact that water has previously been warmed contributes to its freezing quickly; for so it cools sooner. Hence many people, when they want to cool hot water quickly, begin by putting it in the sun. . ." (Jeng)
1. According to a study of the Mpemba effect by Monwhea Jeng Many factors impact water as it cools and eventually freezes, evaporation can contribute to a loss of mass, Hot water can hold less dissolved gas than cold water and large amounts of dissolved gas escape upon boiling, convection currents and non-uniform temperature distribution happen as water cools, the environmental of the hot sample also impacts the environment around it. Super cooling may also have an important role in the effect, super cooling occours when water freezes not at 0c but at some lower temperature. (Jeng, The Mpemba effect: When can hot water freeze faster than cold?, 2006)
2. In 1963 a student named Erasto B Mpemba noticed that placing recently a recently boiled mixture of milk and sugar into the refrigerator it froze into ice-cream faster than another students mixture that was not heated. He asked his physics instructor why this had happened and his...