Institutional racism has shaped inequality with the help of cultural factors. People have become colorblind because of the success of some African-Americans. Oprah is the richest African-American in America but she ranks at number 221 of Forbes 2014 400 richest Americans with three billion dollars. (Forbes, 2014, 1) We also have an African-American in the highest office in the world, The White House. For some reason this has led to the belief that African- Americans are no longer struggling. For some reason when one succeeds that means we all have but that is so far from the truth. As Michelle Alexander puts it, “The fact that some African Americans have experienced great success in recent years does not mean that something akin to a racial caste system no longer exists. No caste system in the United States has ever governed all black people; there have always been ‘free blacks’ and black success stories, even during slavery and Jim Crow.” (Alexander, 2010, 21) There have been and always will be those African-Americans or people of any race who will reach the top but that doesn’t mean they take the whole race with them. There are also those African-Americans who conform to the ways of society. Everybody isn’t meant to go against the status quo. Everybody won’t see something wrong with playing by the rules though they will understand they’re being oppressed. “That reality helps to explain why African American leaders such as Booker T. Washington urged blacks to focus on improving themselves rather than on challenging racial discrimination. It is also why the Civil Rights Movement initially met significant resistance among some African Americans in the South.” (Alexander, 2010, 210-211) There has always been a divide between the African-American community but one thing we all can agree on is that there is something wrong and it needs to change. History
For as long as African-Americans have been trying to gain equality there has been some type of racist institution and cultural factors put up to block any progress. “When it became clear that the old caste system was crumbling…a new one would have to take its place.” (Alexander, 2010, 22) History has shown that the majority feels threatened when any minority gets any type of power. When African-Americans refused to abide by slavery they decided to adopt black codes. The black codes were set up to put limits on free “persons of color” or anyone with at least one-eighth Negro Blood. The Civil rights version of the Black Codes allowed persons of color “to acquire, own and dispose of property; to make contracts; to enjoy the fruits of their labor; to sue and be sued; and to receive protection under the law in their persons and property.” (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 1865-1866, 1p) However it put limits on who they can marry, “Marriage between a white person and a person of color shall be illegal and void.” (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 1865-1866, 1p) They put forth vagrancy laws to pressure freedmen to sign contracts that provided that they could be arrested and imprisoned to do hard labor, but whites had the option to take an oath of poverty instead. Apprentice laws made it so that the children of vagrants and black children could be punished and recaptured if they ran away but also fed, clothed, taught a trade and sent to school. Then there were laws put for by the courts for crimes. All civil and criminal cases involving a black plaintiff or defendant were allowed black witnesses only if the case affected the person or their property. Crimes that they felt were committed by freedmen carried the death penalty like rebellions, arson, burglary, and assaulting a white woman. Minor offenses could result in a whipping or a hiring out. (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 1865-1866, 1p) Then the Reconstruction Era brought the black codes to an end and African-Americans began to advance again. Slavery was abolished by law; African-Americans were considered...
Having explored my target and agent identities has helped me identify certain types of institutionalracism that my family and I go through. In this paper I will go into depth on one specific institutional form that I feel has impacted my family and me in the long run. I will also link that form to two other forms of institutionalracism and explain how each one of them potentiate one another increasing their ability to exclude or deny. Last but not least I will reflect my thoughts and emotions towards these issues for both my family and I. Incorporating the collage sharing that I had with two of my classmates and their feelings and emotions as well.
In the book, “Racism in the United States, Implications for the Helping Profession” written by; Joshua Miller and Ann Marie Garran. The authors talk about this web of institutionalracism in chapter 04 (pg. 61), they focus on nine types of institutionalracism Residential, Educational, Employment, Accumulation of wealth and upward mobility, Environmental and Health, Criminal Justice, Political, and Media. The author’s purpose is to emphasis how racism remains institutionally embedded in the U.S society and focus on what remains as oppose to what has been accomplished. When I put thought into which forms of institutional...
For the past centuries, racism has greatly influenced wars, slavery, the formation of nations, and legal codes. Racism is the belief that one racial group are superior to another. Racism is an absolute ideology, because a person fixed beliefs on a certain race gives that person a sense of superiority of another race. For example, all colored people are for all time inferior to the white population in mental capacity. This attitude always causes, therefore, a hierarchy of the society.
“The first clear evidence of racism occurred at the end of the 16th century with the start of the slave trade from Africa to Britain and to America.”(Steven) The origin of racism occurs when Columbus discovered America. When slavery was practiced in the United States, blacks were not only considered inferior to whites but regarded as property instead of human beings. During the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, it was agreed that slaves were to be considered three-fifths people for purposes of taxation and representation. Generally during slavery, blacks were deemed intellectually inferior to whites. This notion persists in modern-day America.
“People are not born being racist just as they are not born knowing right from wrong. Racism is said to be something that is learned, according to Murray from the American Psychological Association.” (“What causes racism?”). One of the...
...approaches that are currently relied on.
Racism is a form of discrimination that stems from the belief that groups should be treated differently according to phenotypic difference. It is widespread in the UK (Modood et al, 1997).
Racism has many forms; direct attack is less common than perceived discrimination in interpersonal communication, or inequity in the receipt of services or justice. It is easier to measure discriminatory acts such as racist attacks, but some believe that everyday minor incidents or slights (micro-aggressions) and the perception that society is discriminatory may have a greater impact on the individual's health (Laveist, 1996). Measurement of perceived racism is complicated by its possible overlap with paranoid ideation and an external locus of control. However, ‘paranoia’ may represent a healthy coping strategy in a discriminatory environment (Sharpley et al, 2001).
The impact of discrimination is influenced by individual factors (such as socio-economic status, skin colour, and coping style), context (for example, where the incident happens, the extent of integration within an area, and the history of the minority group) as well as macro-economics, political ideologies and history (King & Williams, 1995). Longitudinally, racism produces and perpetuates socio-economic difference, and so controlling for this in analyses may decrease a valid association.
Previous SectionNext Section...
...Blacks, Prison, And InstitutionalRacism
Description: The title pretty much says it all in this one. This paper addresses
the issue of blacks in prison and explores the socio-economic causes and
solutions. This paper uses many govermentally commissioned reports.
Blacks, Prison, and InstitutionalRacism
Introduction Criminal justice and security is one of the largest industries in
the United States. Such a statistic is (and rightly so) of great concern to
Afro-Americans because a disproportionate percentage of individuals under the
control of the US Criminal Justice System are from the Black community. This
paper will look at the alarming statistics and attempt to trace the roots of the
disparity. It will then consider the affects and explore possible solutions to
the expanding problem.
The Imprisoned Black Youth Black communities throughout the U.S. are witnessing
the institutionalization of their youth. Of course institutionalization is
nothing new to Afro-Americans, it is something Blacks have faced since their
existence in this country. In the beginning Blacks were forced into the
institution of slavery. After the abolition of slavery Blacks faced
institutionalracism, that is, racism legitimated by the whole of society
directed against the few of society. As a facet of that institutionalracism
Blacks are now forced to persevere the...
...‘Critically analyse the concept of institutionalracism in policing and evaluate policy responses to it’
‘By its very nature, much of policing is controversial and conflictual.’(Newburn 2005:525) This can be seen in the major debate of race and racism that has continued throughout contemporary British policing from the 80’s to the present, featuring increasingly in popular media and political debates. (Newburn 2005) The growing interest in the position of ethnic minority groups in relation to the criminal justice system was the acknowledgment that they do not receive equivalent treatment as their white counterparts. This was shown in a number of high profile cases (Britton 2000), leading to public concern over whether racism operated at the individual level or whether was it embedded in policies and practices of the police. (Easton & Piper 2005) In this period, two inquiries were carried out: The Scarmen report and the Macpherson report, investigating and probing police procedures to see if or where racism was present in the system. Both became of significant value to society, bringing, ‘to the surface fundamental issues concerning police powers, competence, accountability, personnel and training.’(Bowling 1998:xiv) Allowing fresh debates to surface on how to build a successful multi-cultural society in Britain.
These are the areas I will focus on to be able to critically analyse the concept of...
After reading the article on the Huffington Post titled InstitutionalRacism I see that this type of Racism is still running rampant in our American society. The article notes that “The old definition of institutionalracism is simply put as racism that is done by habit, rather than one that is done by intent.” (Slayton, 2009, para. 3) This form ofInstitutionalRacism is found within our political system, watched daily by the way that the right-wing conservatives speak to and about our current president. Their mode and logic is Racist, but since nothing is blatantly said that is racially taboo, the issue slides right under the rug; nothing is done about it. I wonder sometimes if the shoe were on the other foot and circumstances were totally reversed, would the black party be disciplined?
While reading this article I found another form of InstitutionalRacism, this is discussed and illustrated as an example by where a potential candidate for a new position was being considered. The group felt that he was and extraordinary candidate, he was intelligent, came from the East Coast, was a liberalist, and shared many of the groups political views. Those were the reasons that the group felt he would be a successful and potential candidate, not to mention that this person was...
...Racism; An epidemic of the 21st Century.
Harley Sudell April 2014
Racism is something that is becoming increasingly evident in our society. To accept everyone as equal is fundamental to being an Australian and living in Australia. Australia is a multi-cultural and multi-racial society and for us to live in harmony we all need to see other races and other cultures as our equals.
As a 10 year old Primary Student I seeracism first hand when I look around my environment. Examples of racism may be seen in the school playground, on television, in comics and journals and even sometimes amongst my friends.
The fight against racism has been important in the developed world now for many decades. Before the Second World War, racism was seen as almost acceptable. There were many examples throughout the British Commonwealth and in places like India, which was a British Colony, the local people were seen as almost second class citizens by the occupying British forces and there were many examples of the local people being treated as little more than servants.
Ghandi, who was one of the leaders of the Indian people advocated non-violent protest, and eventually achieved a massive swing in public opinion against racism.
We can all do our bit to stop racism, such as joining in with children from other cultures in our playground games...
InstitutionalRacism and Its Effects on Latino Students
English 101- Composition
The purpose of this paper is to examine the detrimental effects institutionalracism in education has on Latino academic achievement. Consideration is given to the role of educators in perpetuating racist attitudes; the ineffective acculturation measures and the adverse effects resulting from the diminished academic expectations. Latino children exit K-12 systems deficient of the necessary skills to thrive in higher education or in the workplace; facts which foster complacency. Qualitative and quantitative data are used to support arguments and observations. Additionally, this paper is intended to promote dialog about a problem that will have long lasting implications on society at large and the growing role Latinos will play in affecting the trends in educational paradigm shifts.
InstitutionalRacism and Its Effects on Latino Students
The idea of institutionalracism in education conjures up visions of the Plessy vs. Ferguson era of segregation, when common practice was “separate but equal” institutions. It was 1954, with the groundbreaking Supreme Court decision of Brown vs. Board of Education, that the practice of legal racial segregation was deemed unconstitutional. Its passing...