After the Civil War, during the late 1800s, the rise of the Industrial Revolution and the Gilded Age provided the means and demands for more work and more workers. Due to government actions, immigrations, labor unions and technological changes, the industry expanded in growth. The abundance of natural resources, an increase in labor supply and the role of government led to the high demands for more work and workers. However, as immigration helped by having a cheap, abundant labor source for businesses to use, and as the creation of labor unions sought to increase benefits and improve working conditions many began to see the shortcomings of all that was occurring. Labor Unions and Immigration both had momentous effects upon the industry worker. These two factors affected the daily lives of these industrial workers socially, economically as well as politically.
The great migration of southern, central and eastern Europeans greatly impacted American industrial workers socially. The United States attracted these immigrants by promoting their need for laborers, people to settle to the West and by portraying the United States as a land of opportunity and freedom for all. Although there were an abundant number of immigrants flowing into the United States, these groups tended to be less educated, lived heavily in cities and populated the slums. They took any available jobs, which angered many American workers who were in need of money. This sparked a philosophy of nativism, which created this fear of the mass immigration integrating with the population and taking jobs away. Nativists feared that they would become outnumbered and feared the ideas of communism and anarchism that the immigrants brought with them thus blaming the new immigrants for the ills of the society. Native-born Americans began to stigmatize immigrants as racially different and inferior even when they were of the same race.
In hopes for opportunity and freedom, immigration transpired, but due to...
...supported US manufacturers with protective tariffs, and refrained from either regulating business operations or heavily taxing corporate profits.
• Government policies gave 170 million acres of land to railroad companies for expansion of business.
• Land grants and cash loans made poor construction and increased corruption in government.
• Since the 19th century had a lot of cheap labor, worker strikes were prominent and were also easily put down by other scabs who were desperate for work. Strikes involved quitting jobs rather than violence.
• Employers used many tactics for defending unions such as the lockout, blacklists, yellow-dog contracts, e.t.c.
• Labor was often divided on the best methods to fighting management.
• Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was during an economic depression, when the railroad companies cut wages in order to reduce costs and this strike spread to 11 states creating a national strike made of 500,000 people.
• National Labor Union (1866) was the first attempt to organize all workers in all states – both skilled and unskilled, both agricultural and industrialworkers. NLU also had many reforms such as the 8-hour work day.
• Knights of Labor (1869) was a 2nd national labor union which began as a secret society in order to avoid detection by employers and went into public in 1881 and lost popularity/membership in 1886 due to bombing.
• Reforms of Powderly 1. Abolition of child labor 2....
...MEANING AND DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL RELATION
The relationship between Employer and employee or trade unions is called Industrial Relation. Harmonious relationship is necessary for both employers and employees to safeguard the interests of the both the parties of the production. In order to maintain good relationship with the employees, the main functions of every organization should avoid any dispute with them or settle it as early as possible so as to ensureindustrial peace and higher productivity. Personnel management is mainly concerned with the human relation in industry because the main theme of personnel management is to get the work done by the human power and it fails in its objectives if good industrial relation is maintained. In other words good Industrial Relation means industrial peace which is necessary for better and higher productions.
i. Industrial Relation is that part of management which is concerned with the manpower of the enterprise – whether machine operator, skilled worker or manager. BETHEL, SMITH & GROUP
ii. Industrial Relation is a relation between employer and employees, employees and employees and employees and trade unions. – Industrial dispute Act 1947
iii. While moving from jungle of the definitions, here, Industrial Relation is viewed as the “process by which people and...
By Bertell Ollman
Democracy, industrial, is the application of the doctrines of democratic theory to people's lives as workers. Democracy is always rules by the people, and the key questions it raises are which people? Over what range of problems are they to rule? How much power should they have? And through what mechanisms and procedures should these powers be exercised? Industrial democracy is the attempt to supply answers to these questions in regard to people's lives as workers. At a minimum the questions raised by industrial democracy represent dissatisfaction with those views of democracy that limit its application to the sphere of politics. Given the importance of work to a society and to the health and well being of workers, which is to say to most citizens of society, extending democracy to the economy has struck many as the obvious thing to do.
What industrial democracy is, however, has been a matter of serious dispute. For some it is simply a mater of workers participating in decisions that affect minor working conditions; with all real control left in the hands of the owners of the enterprise. For others it involves workers having full control over most factory floor matter operations but of nothing else. Others extend the definitions to include these functions as well as to allow...
Ten Things You Should Know About Migrant Labor in the 1930s
1. http://americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/327750?terms=migrant+workers+1930s Migrant workers are an important and inexpensive source of labor. They migrate from place to place in search of work.
2. John Steinbeck wrote a book, Grapes of Wrath, about migrant workers and the Dust Bowl. http://americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/327750?terms=migrant+workers+1930s
3. The agricultural, mining, and construction industries in California and the border states of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico have long depended on low-cost immigrant labor, primarily from Mexico http://americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/327750?terms=migrant+workers+1930s
4.Another force at work in the lives of migrant workers is labor organization. As early as the 1930s, leftists in the labor movement attempted to unionize workers that the American Federation of Labor considered "unorganizable" due to their mobility and lack of legal status
5. Dorothea Lange's "Migrant Mother," portrayed people who lived in a migrant labor camp.
6. Another force at work in the lives of Migrant Workers is labor organization. 1930s, American Federation of Labor tried to help those who do not have jobs.
7. The IndustrialWorkers of the World (IWW), also...
CHAPTER - I
➢ INDUSTRIAL POLICY RESOLUTION OF INDIA 1956
➢ RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
➢ HYPOSTASIS OF THE STUDY
WORKERS PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT- SPECIAL STUDY
CHAPTER - I
The Word ‘Participation’ has its origin n the Latin root ‘participate’ which means taking part or sharing. Sharing is atleast a bilateral process.
Hence ‘workers participation’ is considered as a process by which workers participate in Management functions of planning, to organizing and controlling with the objective o better results and satisfaction. The move to associate workers in decision-making process of Management has gradually been Gaining momentum in India with the introduction of democratic institutions and spread of literacy among workers.
The “National Commission of Labour” observed the industrialworker of today has acquired a dignity not known to his predecessor.
He is o Longer the unskilled coolie of the days gone by engaged in an unending Struggle to takeout his existence neglected by the Society except for his limited and with nverty limited aspirations. He has new personality of his own.
Social thinkers have been concerned, from the very beginning of industrialization, with the problems of the status of workers in industry. The origin can be traced to the thinking of early...
...the impact of any TWO of the following on the American industrialworker between 1865 and 1900.
During the late 1800s (1865-1900s), the blossom of an era was developed, the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution provided the means and demands for more work and more workers. These demands for more work and workers were fairly high and the pressures of harder work and lesser pay became more of an issue during this time period. Thus the formation of labor unions came into place. Opressed industrialworkers realized that they can stand to protect thier interests in collective bargaining for the better of a postive work environment and the workers themselves. The Industrial Revolution also created popular inquiry for more immigration workers which meant lower pay for much more difficult work. The immigration process of new workers also formed racial tensions with southern and eastern Europeans and native- born Americans. Though the impact of labor unions and immigration have both affected the American industrialworker and the work feild intentively, the relazation of labor unions of collective bargaining have become a huge issue for employers, while the immigrants have increased the popular demand for lower pay, but harder work in comparison...
...The Industrial Revolution was a time during the 18th and 19th centuries in which major changes occurred in agriculture, textile and metal manufacture, transportation, economic policies and the social structure in Great Britain. Eventually, Russia, Japan, and other non-Western nations adopted some of the technological and social changes of the Industrial Revolution as well (Bahm, Enright, & van Tuyll, 2011). As new technologies were being developed, there were both positive and negative impacts.
The working conditions in factories during the Industrial Revolution were unsafe, unsanitary and inhumane. Workers spent long hours in factories under very harsh working conditions, hence the reason they were called sweatshops. These harsh working conditions are particularly shown in Jack London’s short story, “The Apostate.”
It is important to note that men and women were not the only victims of such harsh working conditions. Children were forced to perform dangerous tasks such as squeezing through machine parts to clean or repair them. In many cases, children were forced to work to provide for their families. Even though child labor was discouraged by many, it wasn’t until later that child labor laws would be passed. Child labor would soon come to an end with the creation of these laws and the developments of new machinery. In the short story “Hard Times” by Charles Dickens he attempts to warn society of the concerns...
...unions had great impact on the average American industrialworker either it be positive or negatively in the sense that workers were abused and underpaid to the point where their needed to be change.
Technology was advancing steadily and new inventions were being introduced to industry at a rapid pace. With that, a new breed of machines used for manufacturing would be operated by the American worker thus creating tension withworkers and employers due to them not seeing eye to eye. Technological innovation created more jobs but because most machines were labor saving devices, fewer workers could produce more in less time thus having workers being paid based on time rather than the time spent on the job. This affected the American industrialworker in the sense that they could no longer decide when to begin and end the workday, when to rest and what tools and techniques to use further depriving the worker’s of their independence. Since machines and the assembly line were of great use they reduced the need for skilled workers causing employers to cut wage costs by hiring more women and children. Due to employers lowering wages this just caused workers to work even harder and longer just to maintain the same income further showing the abuse they endured.
Labor unions were a result of the loss of independence, desire for...