Gretchen Rhines Cheney Betsy Brown Ruzzi and Karthik Muralidharan November 2005
India, with more than a billion residents, has the second largest education system in the world (after China). Experts estimate that 32 percent of its current population is under the age of 15.1 But counter to the image of India as a youthful engine of economic growth where many urban-based citizens work in some of the best technology-centered jobs in the world, males in India complete just 2.9 years of schooling on average, females just 1.8 years.2 And for the small proportion who do persist through primary and secondary schooling, the quality of instruction varies widely, depending on the region of the country and whether one is enrolled in a State-supported public school or a fee-based private school. Despite the highly inefficient delivery of public services, high levels of teacher absenteeism and non-teaching activity, many Indian students remain motivated to succeed on the college entrance exams. The high level of competition for entry into the Indian Institutes of Technology, the Indian Institutes of Management and other top institutions is enough to spur millions of students to achieve at remarkably high levels, particularly in the areas of science and mathematics. The increased demand for higher education is not currently being met: only ten percent of the age cohort is actually enrolled in higher education. But in a country with such a large population, ten percent enrollment amounts to 9 million students, resulting in 2.5 million new college graduates a year. These numbers driven by the private sector opportunities abroad, and increasingly, back in India, will continue to ensure India’s prowess in delivering high-quality technical manpower.
Historically, Indian education has been elitist. Traditional Hindu education was tailored to the needs of Brahmin3 boys who were taught to read and write by a Brahmin teacher. Under British rule from the 1700s until 1947, India’s education policies reinforced the pre-existing elitist tendencies, tying entrance and advancement in government service to academic education. Colonial rule contributed to the legacy of an education system geared to preserving the position of the more privileged classes. Education served as a "gatekeeper," permitting an avenue of upward mobility only to those with resources. Post-primary education has traditionally catered to the interests of the higher and upwardly mobile castes. In the nineteenth century, post-primary students were disproportionately Brahmins; their traditional concern with learning gave them an advantage under British education policies. By the early twentieth century, several other castes realized the advantages of education as a passport to political power and managed to acquire formal learning. But even today, the 1
The World Fact Book, CIA . 2004 estimate.
Public Report of Basic Education, 1999
Br ahmin is th e h ighest caste group in India, trad itionally made up of priests, philosophers, scholars, and religious leaders.
vast majority of students making it through middle school to high school continue to be from high-level castes and middle- to upper class families living in urban areas.
This historical barrier coupled with the post-independence focus of the education system on tertiary education more than primary education (relative to the number of students in each category), makes it unsurprising that India has the largest number of illiterate people in the world. According to the 2001 Census, more than one out of every three Indian citizens (and 42 percent of...
...the caste system
The Caste System- Reaction Response
The Indian Caste System finds its origin in the Manusmriti, an ancient Hindu law book mentioned in the scriptures . The Bhagwat Gita refers to division of castes according to Gunas and Karma . First were Brahmans who were priests, scholars and teachers . Second in were Kshatriyas who were the fighters, like kings and warriors . Vaishyas were third and were traders . Shudras were the last and ranked lowest in the caste system were service providers . This division in Indian society has existed since time immemorial . This Varna System is
the Caste System that is still prevalent in the country . It categorizes the work to be done by each
This system is prevalent largely among Hindus, but exists among other religious communities in India as well . Brahmans are considered the highest caste . They are predominantly vegetarians, who are assigned role of priests, teachers or scholars . They enjoy many benefits . Children of these families are expected to join family profession . Kshatriyas were kings and warriors in olden times, presently they are in multifarious professions . Vaishyas, remained traders from the beginning of this Varna division, and are still into trading . The fourth are the Shudras, who make the serving class in Indian society
The Shudras are the fourth and...
...Intolerance within India’s caste system
The Indian caste system is harsh and oppressive, yet it has not always been that way, and policies have been implemented to end this intolerance. The caste system within India is a set of classes that is used to place people into occupational groups. It is a system followed by Hindus. The story of how it began states that the original five varnas were made from a primordial being, and each varna contains many castes and sub-castes, each of which has a specific job. The cast system of India had three stages; the early caste system, changes in the caste system, and today’s caste system. The solution to this intolerance will not be simple, but will hopefully help to one day allow India to escape the binding ways of the caste system.
The original caste system had a very different objective than that of today.
It was meant to place people into occupational groups biased in personality and profession, not birth, “Rooted in religion and based on a division of labor, the caste system, among other things, dictates the type of occupations a person can pursue and the social interactions that he may have” (Manian). This shows that the cast system was not meant to be oppressive or intolerant, and one day may be able to exist without intolerance again. The caste...
...April 15, 2014
“Adversity is like a strong wind. It tears away from us all but the things that cannot be torn, so that we see ourselves as we really are.” Adversity implies difficulties, trouble and misfortune as it tests the potential of man and strengthens his spirit of self confidence. In the novel Indian Horse written by Richard Wagamese there are many circumstances where the main character Saul is forced to overcome the adversity in which once shattered his human spirit and made him feel worthless. The ideas of adversity such as being beaten at residential schools and the racism he faced while playing hockey, demonstrates Saul’s constant inner struggle and his desire to become a more powerful individual.
Throughout the novel Saul is exposed to many painful experiences that leave him little to no identity and an unimaginable outlook on life. We quickly learn that when Saul was a child, he was taken away from his family and forced into an Indian Residential School where he witnessed and experienced abuses at the hands of the school’s educators. “They called it a school but it was never that....There were no tests or examinations. The only test was our ability to survive.”(Pg.79) The emotions present in the quote represent the pain and agony he endured when being forcibly taught the ways of the white people. The school he is referring to is St. Jerome’s...
...Indian Residential Schools
How many of you guys have heard about Indian residential schools? Probably not a lot of you. This is a topic you probably haven’t discussed before, but it’s a topic I believe everyone should be educated about and informed on.
For about 100 years, the government removed Aboriginal children from their homes and placed them in residential schools in an attempt to make them "Canadian." In very strict and often violent environments, children were denied regular contact with their families, were given poor educations and few life skills.
They were unprepared for both life outside of the schools and life inside their Native communities. Communities and families, robbed of their natural structure and roles, began to fall apart.
Those who were victims of sexual and physical abuse are in greatest need of healing. Recently, Aboriginal communities have begun to deal actively with the effects on all generations of the residential schools. They have started talking in healing circles, addictions and violence treatment programs that make the connection to the residential schools, and parenting and cultural programs that try to reclaim what was lost.
BODY 1-WHAT ARE INDIAN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS?
* 1957 Gradual Civilization Act was established by 5th parliament by the province of Canada to assimilate Indians
80 schools were established within Canada
Adapt them to the English...
...1880s, the residential school system was established by the government of Canada (Miller 2011). From then on, First Nations children were forced to attend these Catholic schools instituted based on European standards and regulations. Injustice went on for almost another century, in which many First Nation cultures were diminished and obliterated. Steven Harper may have apologized to the First Nations for the rest of the Canadians, but the damage is already done (Dorrell 2009). The Residential School System extinguished the hopes of Canadian First Nations in maintaining their own cultures. In this article we will use St. Mary’s, a residential school located in Mission, BC, as a case study to investigate the severity of the impact the RSS had on First Nations cultures.
Language is the mean of communication of a society and a significant factor in cultural and social development. It is also the distinct identifier of a specific culture. By analyzing the complex systems of the languages of different cultures, sociolinguists can relate the languages’ properties to aspects of the culture. Language is also tightly intertwined with the culture of a civilization: the Chinese and Japanese consider calligraphy—the act of writing in an unique but artistic way with ink brushes—a major art along with music, painting, and the chess game of Go; the Medieval Romans were inefficient and limited in their mathematics due to their numeral...
...Better Late Than Never
The residential school system of Canada are network of residential school for Aboriginal peoples of Canada funded by the Canadian government's Department of Indian Affairs, and administered by Christian churches. In the early twentieth century, young natives were removed from their families, and deprived of their ancestral languages, exposed physical and sexual abuse at the hands of their teachers and other students. In this essay, I will discuss about how those young natives affected by residential school system in their future life and what have government or organization done to help them out.
There are two opposite parties commenting on residential school system. The child welfare agencies insisted they were acting in the children’s best interest – simply moving them into better environment than they were getting in their native parents’ home. However, Manitoba family court Judge Edwin Kimelman claims that the action of taking kids away like this was totally unacceptable (Michael 445).
As we can see, residential schools have had lasting effects on aboriginal communities. We can conclude that as a removal of next generation.
The documentary “Unrepentant – Canada’s Genocide” is a documentary which contains first-hand testimonies from residential school survivors. Kevin Annett – director of this documentary faced firing and the loss of his family, reputation as a result of his efforts...
The Indian caste system, known as Varnas, is a centuries old system of social stratification. It is a strict hierarchal system that determines a person’s occupation for them. It also determines what they can wear, who they can talk to, who they can marry. Those on the top of the pyramid have all the wealth, power, and prestige, while those on the bottom are treated no better than the trash that is thrown away. It consists of four Varna’s: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras. There is also a class outside the Varna’s historically called the untouchable’s. The caste system is an ancient cultural tradition that is so deep-rooted in the India cultural, and backed by historical and religious text. After the conquering Aryans established themselves as the ruling class, they adapted a caste system that would keep the Aryan’s in positions that would bring them wealth and prestige, and keep those they conquered subordinate to them. To strengthen their power, the Aryans were able to enforce their strict social rules through religious texts and the Hindu ideals of Varnas and Karma. It has been exploited and altered throughout the centuries by invaders, conquerors, and colonizers to prevent unification for their own benefit. Some may argue that the British created the modern caste system to benefit themselves, however, If anything, the British tried...
...The Indian caste system describes the system of social stratification and social restrictions in India in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed jātis or castes. Within a jāti, there exist exogamous groups known as gotras, the lineage or clan of an individual. In a handful of sub-castes such as Shakadvipi, endogamy within a gotra is permitted and alternative mechanisms of restricting endogamy are used (e.g. banning endogamy within a surname).
The Indian caste system involves four castes and outcasted social groups. Although generally identified with Hinduism, the caste system was also observed among followers of other religions in the Indian subcontinent, including some groups of Muslims and Christians. Caste barriers have mostly broken down in large cities, though they persist in rural areas of the country, where 72% of India's population resides.
None of the Hindu scriptures endorses caste-based discrimination, and the Indian Constitution has outlawed caste-based discrimination, in keeping with the secular, democratic principles that founded the nation. Nevertheless, the caste system, in various forms, continues to survive in modern India because of a combination of political factors and social perceptions and behavior.
Main article: History of...